being placed in an array to investigate their effectiveness as a fish habitat.
An artificial reef is a human-created underwater structure, typically built to promote marine life in areas with a generally featureless bottom, to control erosion, block ship passage, block the use of trawling nets, or improve surfing.
Many reefs are built using objects that were built for other purposes, for example by sinking oil rigs (through the Rigs-to-Reefs program), scuttling ships, or by deploying rubble or construction debris. Other artificial reefs are purpose built (e.g. the reef balls) from PVC or concrete. Shipwrecks may become artificial reefs when preserved on the seafloor. Regardless of construction method, artificial reefs generally provide hard surfaces where algae and invertebrates such as barnacles, corals, and oysters attach; the accumulation of attached marine life in turn provides intricate structure and food for assemblages of fish.
The construction of artificial reefs began in ancient times. Persians blocked the mouth of the Tigris River to thwart Arabian pirates by building an artificial reef and during the First Punic War the Romans built a reef across the mouth of the Carthaginian harbor in Sicily to trap enemy ships within and assist in driving the Carthaginians from the island.
Artificial reefs to increase fish yields or for algaculture began no later than 17th-century Japan, when rubble and rocks were used to grow kelp. The earliest recorded artificial reef in the United States is from the 1830s, when logs from huts were used off the coast of South Carolina to improve fishing.
Beginning before the 1840s, US fishermen used interlaced logs to build artificial reefs. More recently, refuse such as old refrigerators, shopping carts, ditched cars and out-of-service vending machines replaced the logs in ad hoc reefs. Officially sanctioned projects have incorporated decommissioned ships, subway cars, battle tanks, armored personnel carriers, oil drilling rigs and beehive-like reef balls.
Artificial reefs tend to develop in more or less predictable stages. First, where an ocean current encounters a vertical structure, it can create a plankton-rich upwelling that provides a reliable feeding spot for small fish such as sardines and minnows, which draw in pelagic predators such as tuna and sharks. Next come creatures seeking protection from the ocean's lethal openness—hole and crevice dwellers such as grouper, snapper, squirrelfish, eels and triggerfish. Opportunistic predators such as jack and barracuda also appear. Over months and years the reef structure becomes encrusted with algae, tunicates, hard and soft corals and sponges.
3D printing technology has been employed both to create moulds for cast ceramic and concrete artificial reefs, and to directly create artificial reefs, also through the use of environmentally friendly materials.
An electric reef is an artificial reef where an small low voltage electric charge is applied to a sub-sea metallic structures that causes limestone to precipitate onto a metal frame onto which coral planulae can then attach and grow; the process also speeds up post-attachment growth.
Artificial surfing reefs
Artificial surfing reefs have been created in several locations. Supporters cite benefits such as coastal protection, habitat enhancement and coastal research. The world's first attempt was made in El Segundo, near Los Angeles, in California. The next attempt was at Mosman Beach, Perth, Western Australia. This reef was constructed of large granite rocks placed in a pyramidal shape to form an appropriate breaking wave form that would suit surfers. An artificial reef constructed of over 400 massive, geotextile bags (each larger than a bus) filled WITH sand was constructed in 2000 at Narrowneck on the Gold Coast of Queensland, Australia. This artificial reef had two objectives: stabilizing beach nourishment and improving surfing conditions.
Europe's first artificial reef was approved in 2008. Construction began August 30, 2008, in Boscombe, Bournemouth, UK (5 months after 3 local councillors spent 18 days in New Zealand on a fact-finding mission), and opened in November 2009. The £3 million (2.5% of the Council's annual budget that year) reef was expected to create waves up to 30% larger and double the number of surfing days annually. Construction on this reef continued from June 2008 through August 2009. Boscombe Reef was built from large sand-filled geotextile containers, totaling 13,000 cubic metres (460,000 cu ft). It failed entirely and attempts were made to convert it into a multi purpose reef, which also failed. Bournemouth Council attempted to recover monies from the New Zealand-based reef construction company but the company went into administration before paying any compensation.
In the United States coastal permitting requirements present major obstacles to building surfing reefs. The only reef built in the U.S. for surfing is southern California's "Pratte's Reef", which was constructed in 2000 and removed in 2008 as planned.
According to environmental group The Ocean Conservancy, the Osborne Reef may be an indication that the benefits of artificial reefs need to be re-examined. Jack Sobel, a senior scientist at the group, stated "There's little evidence that artificial reefs have a net benefit," citing concerns such as toxicity from paint, plastics parts, etc., damage to ecosystems and concentrating fish into one place (worsening overfishing).
Artificial reefs can show quick increases in local fish population rehabilitation, coral reef and algae growth. However, far more than half the amount of biomass found on artificial reefs is attracted from other areas rather than developing there. James Bohnsack, a biologist with the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) concluded artificial reefs do not increase fish populations. Instead they operate as fish aggregating devices (FADs) bringing in fish from other reefs. Concentrating fish on a reef also makes for easier fishing. Research continues.
The fish attracted to artificial reef zones vary from reef to reef depending on its age, size and structure. Large reef structures such as large sunken ships attract larger fish.
The use of shipwrecks in rocky zones creates a new trophic structure for the local ecosystem. They become the home for certain species and many nearby animals migrate to the shipwreck. This unbalances the natural ecosystem and alters many other habitats.
Recreational dive sites
Thousands of popular wreck diving sites throughout the world are built around shipwrecks sunk as artificial reefs. Some of these wrecks were sunk deliberately to attract divers. The USS Spiegel Grove and USS Oriskany in Florida, USS Indra and USS Aeolus in North Carolina, and Bianca C. in Grenada draw thousands of divers annually.
Potential sources of pollution
The materials used in most artificial reefs often cause pollution by releasing chemicals and nutrients that are not naturally found in reef environments. Ships can release polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), asbestos, iron, lead paint and anti-fouling paint leaches into the ocean and enters the food chain.
Waste tires were used to create many artificial reefs. In Florida alone, 571 permitted artificial reefs exist, and the number of illegal reefs is thought to be much greater. Tires are made from many chemicals and compounds such as black carbon, sulphur, zinc oxide and peroxides. The US National Artificial Reef Plan states that tires are a good reef construction material because no toxic substances are released from the decomposition of tires; though there is little information published to back up the claims and the future decomposing of the many different types of rubber tires could create unseen pollution.
Tires have fallen out of favor with marine biologists. Tropical storms may demolish the tire containment system, washing tires onto beaches, destroying nearby coral reefs and inhibiting new coral growth. As a result, states such as Florida and the country of France have begun large-scale removal of tire reefs. On the Osborne Reef off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Florida boaters were allowed to dump unsecured tires at the site. Storms broke the nylon straps holding the original tire bundles together. Since 2007 approximately 130,000 of an estimated 700,000 tires have been removed. At other artificial reef sites hurricanes pushed tires up on beaches from Florida to North Carolina, damaging reefs, causing pollution and requiring costly cleanup. As a result, the Ocean Conservancy now includes tire removal during the International Coastal Cleanup in September of each year.
Some artificial reefs are used to prevent coastal erosion. They can be designed to act in multiple ways. Some are designed to force waves to deposit their energy offshore rather than directly on the coastline. Other reefs are designed to hold sediment on beaches. These reefs trap the sediment. These reefs are custom-designed for each unique zone.
Florida is the site of many artificial reefs, many created from deliberately sunken ships, including Coast Guard cutters Duane and Bibb and the U.S. Navy landing ship Spiegel Grove.
In the early 1970s, more than 2,000,000 used vehicle tires were dumped off the coast of Fort Lauderdale, Florida to form an artificial reef. However, the tires were not properly secured to the reef structures, and ocean currents broke them loose, sending them crashing into the developing reef and its natural neighbors. As of 2009, fewer than 100,000 of the tires had been removed after more than 10 years of efforts.
Neptune Memorial Reef was originally conceived as an art project called The Atlantis Reef Project and was envisioned and created by Gary Levine and Kim Brandell. Burial at sea became a way of financing the project. As of 2011, about 200 "placements" had occurred. Cremated remains are mixed with concrete and either encased in columns or molded into sea-star, brain-coral, 15 feet (4.6 m) castings of lions or other shapes before entering the water.
In 1921 the US battleship Massachusetts was scuttled in shallow water off the coast of Pensacola, Florida and then used as a target for experimental artillery. In 1956 the ship was declared the property of the state of Florida by the Florida Supreme Court. Since 1993 the wreck has been a Florida Underwater Archaeological Preserve and is included in the National Register of Historic Places. She serves as an artificial reef and diving spot.
Sea life growing on the remains of USS Oriskany
, intentionally sunk in 2006 to become an artificial reef.
The world's largest artificial reef was created by the purposeful sinking of the 44,000 ton aircraft carrier USS Oriskany off the coast of Pensacola, Florida, in 2006.
Ex-USNS Hoyt S. Vandenberg
The second-largest artificial reef is USNS Hoyt S. Vandenberg, a former World War II era troop transport that served as a spacecraft-tracking ship after the war. The Vandenberg was scuttled seven miles off Key West on May 27, 2009, in 140 feet (43 m) of clear water. Supporters expected the ship to draw recreational divers away from natural reefs, allowing those reefs to recover from damage from overuse.
Ex-USS Spiegel Grove
The ex-USS Spiegel Grove is located on Dixie Shoal, 6 miles (9.7 km) off the Florida Keys in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Her exact location is 25°04′00.23″N 80°18′00.7″W / 25.0667306°N 80.300194°W.
USS Yancey was sunk as an artificial reef off Morehead City, North Carolina, 1990. She is lying on her starboard side at a depth of 160 ft (49 m)
USCGC Spar was scuttled in June 2004 by Captain Tim Mullane in 108 feet (33 m) of water, 30 miles (48 km) off Morehead City, North Carolina, where she serves as an artificial reef.
USS Indra was sunk as an artificial reef, 4 August 1992 in 60 feet (18 m) of water.
Its coordinates are 34°33′55″N 76°58′30″W / 34.56528°N 76.97500°W.
USS Aeolus was sunk to form an artificial reef in August 1988. The ex-Aeolus, located about 22 miles from Beaufort Inlet in 110 feet (30 m) of water, is regularly visited by divers.
Retired subway cars on a barge before being sunk to form an artificial reef.
In late 2000, the New York City Transit Authority decided to retire an outdated fleet of subway cars to make room for new R142 and R142A trains. The obsolete subway cars, (nicknamed "Redbirds"), had run on the A Division (former Interborough Rapid Transit Company routes) of the New York City Subway system for 40 years. Each car was stripped, decontaminated, loaded on a barge, and sunk in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Delaware. Some cars had number plates removed because of rust, which were then auctioned off on eBay. A total of 1,200 subway cars were sunk for this project.
In September 2007, the NYCTA approved a further contract with Weeks Marine worth $6 million, to send 1,600 of its retired subway cars to be used as artificial reefs. The old models were sheathed in stainless steel, except for the plastic front ends, which were removed before sinking. The retired fleet included old work trains and cars damaged beyond repair.
Cancun Underwater Museum
Since November 2009, artist Jason deCaires Taylor has created more than 400 life size sculptures off the coast of Cancun, Mexico at the Cancun Underwater Museum. The coral reefs in this region suffered heavy degradation due to repetitive hurricane abuse. This project was funded by The National Marine Park and the Cancun Nautical Association. It was designed to emulate coral reefs using a neutral ph clay. Taylor constructed unique settings depicting daily activities ranging from a man watching TV to a 1970s replica of a Volkswagen Beetle. This artificial reef relieved pressure from the nearby Manchones Reef.
Since the late 1990s, the Australian government has been providing decommissioned warships for use as artificial reefs for recreational scuba diving. So far, seven ships have been sunk:
- HMAS Swan at Dunsborough in Western Australia during December 1997.
- HMAS Perth at Albany in Western Australia during November 2001.
- HMAS Hobart in Yankalilla Bay in South Australia during November 2002.
- HMAS Brisbane off the Sunshine Coast in Queensland during July 2005.
- HMAS Canberra at a site west of the entrance to Port Phillip Bay in Victoria during October 2009.
- HMAS Adelaide off Terrigal on the New South Wales Central Coast during April 2011
- HMAS Tobruk off Hervey Bay on the Queensland Coast on 29 June 2018 
At Playa Hermosa, the Playa Hermosa Artificial Reef Project has created an artificial reef using discarded porcelain insulators.
On Curaçao, Secore International has created 12 artificial reefs using the cost-effective technique with small tetrapod-shaped concrete structures, seeded with coral larvae.
Saba and Statia
The AROSSTA project is located at Saba and Statia. They are using MOREEFs, which are said to be more efficient then reefballs.
The Gibraltar Reef was first proposed by Eric Shaw in 1973. Initial experiments with tires proved unsuccessful as the tires were swept away by currents or buried underneath sand. In 1974, boats from local marinas and the Gibraltar Port Authority were donated. The first two were barges that were sunk in Camp Bay. In 2006, a 65-ton wooden boat, True Joy (also referred to as Noah's Ark) was sunk there as well, followed by MV New Flame, a mid-sized bulk carrier, in 2007.
In 2013, more than 70 concrete blocks were sunk, each one square meter in size with protruding metal bars. This led to heated debate between the United Kingdom and Spain, with Gibraltar accusing Spain of over forty incursions into their waters per month and Spain accusing Gibraltar of including metal bars in the reef to stop Spanish fishermen trawling the seabed for fish. The dropping led to a diplomatic conflict between the two countries because Gibraltar was a British Overseas Territory.
The surfing reef Temple reef is off the coast of Pondicherry, India constructed of fully recycled materials such as concrete, rocks, trees, palms, and iron bars. It is located at a depth of 18 metres (59 ft).
Pearl of Dubai is an art-inspired Lost City off the coast of Dubai. The site encompasses five acres and is located at the World Islands. At a depth of 10 to 20 metres (33 to 66 ft), the site is designed as an ancient lost city, complete with temples and statues using regional design cues from 800 BC.
Jordan made under-water military vehicles museum, intended to form Artificial Reef
Underwater Chocolate Hills is an artificial reef project undertaken by Spindrift Reefs Dive Center off the coast of Panglao Island in the Philippines. It consists of broken coral harvested by local divers, who attach it to wire structures. The structures are built in the same shape as the Chocolate Hills, which can be found in the Bohol Region. The intent is to create a new dive site and new marine habitat.
In 2018, the Lebanese Army donated 10 stripped tanks to an NGO and sunk them 3km away from the coast of Sidon, South Lebanon.
Diver perception of artificial reefs
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it. (October 2019)
A study in Barbados showed a marked variation in diver satisfaction with artificial reef diving experiences. Novice divers tended to be more satisfied than more experienced divers, who had a strong preference for natural reefs.
- ^ Aspinall, Richard (2016-09-20). "From concrete to coral: breeze blocks make a splash regenerating reefs". the Guardian. Retrieved 2021-01-04.
- ^ Cambodia volunteers step up battle against illegal fishing
- ^ Williams, Thomas Wayne. A Case Study of Artificial Reef Decision-Making in the Florida Keys (PDF). Virginia Commonwealth University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
- ^ Hess, Ron; Rushworth, Denis; Hynes, Michael V.; Peters, John E. "Disposal Options for Ships" (PDF). Rand Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
- ^ "Fisheries Technologies for Developing Countries". National Academies Press. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
- ^ "Guidelines For Marine Artificial Reef Materials" (PDF). Gulf States Marine Fisheries Commission. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 January 2007. Retrieved 20 December 2006.
- ^ a b c d "Artificial Reefs". National Geographic. February 2011. Archived from the original on May 5, 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ 3D printing technology to aid coral growth in Maldives Maldives Independent.
- ^ The 3D-printed artificial reefs, a modern tool to restore habitats in marine protected areas. The Larvotto-Monaco context
- ^ "Biorock Benefits" (PDF). Global Coral Reef Alliance. July 2014. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ Last, First (2008-10-14). "Council officers surf reef fact-finding mission Down Under cost £8,429". Bournemouth Echo. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- ^ "Optimism at Boscombe surf reef's opening day". Bournemouthecho.co.uk. 3 November 2009. Archived from the original on March 18, 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- ^ Fontaine, Evan (2008-10-11). "SANDBAGGED After years of unspectacular closeouts, Pratte's Reef is removed from El Segundo". Surfline. Retrieved 2012-03-05.
- ^ Loney, Jim (9 July 2007). "Florida Raises Ill-Fated Artificial Reefs". Enn.com. Reuters. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ Urbina, Ian (2015-08-15). "Vacation in Rome? Or on That Oil Rig? (Published 2015)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2021-02-24.
- ^ a b Perkol Finkel, S., Shashar, N., & Benayahu, Y. (2006). Can artificial reefs mimic natural reef communities? The roles of structural features and age. Marine Environmental Research, 61( 2), 121135. doi:10.1016/j.marenvres.2005.08.001
- ^ Thiony Simon, JeanChristophe Joyeux, Hudson T. Pinheiro, Fish assemblages on shipwrecks and natural rocky reefs strongly differ in trophic structure, Marine Environmental Research, Volume 90, September 2013, Pages 5565, ISSN 0141-1136.
- ^ "Wrecks and Obstructions Database". NOAA.
- ^ Gerken, Michael. "Top 10 Wreck Dives of North Carolina". Scuba Diving. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Jacobson, Lester. "Artificial Reefs, Sunken Ships, and Military Toxins". Toxipedia. Archived from the original on 2016-09-16. Retrieved 11 August 2016.
- ^ Collins, K. J., Jensen, A. C., Mallinson, J. J., Roenelle, V., & Smith, I. P. (2002). Environmental impact assessment of a scrap tire artificial reef. I CES Journal of Marine Science / Journal du Conseil, 5 9S 243S249. doi:10.1006/jmsc.2002.1297
- ^ Allen, Greg (5 July 2007). "Fallout from Bad '70s Idea: Auto Tires in Ocean Reef". NPR. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Fleshler, David (15 May 2015). "Fixing a catastrophe: Divers removing 90,000 tires from ocean". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Ferrer, Sandra (22 May 2015). "France hits reverse on sinking tyres for artificial reefs". Phys.org. Retrieved 8 March 2016.
- ^ Fleshler, David (30 June 2016). "Push is on to remove thousands of tires on ocean floor in Fort Lauderdale". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- ^ "The Osborne Tire Reef". projectbaseline.org. Project Baseline. Archived from the original on 14 March 2016. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
- ^ Gaskill, Melissa. "Scuba Divers Left Picking Up Pieces After Tire Artificial Reef Projects Fail". sportdiver.com. Retrieved 28 May 2016.
- ^ Morang, A., Waters, J. P., & Stauble, D. K. (2014). Performance of Submerged Prefabricated Structures to Improve Sand Retention at Beach Nourishment Projects. Journal of Coastal Research, 3 0( 6), 11401156. doi:10.2112/JCOASTRESD1300137.1
- ^ Peppard, Jim (21 August 2009). "Florida tire reef removal ends for the year". St. Petersburg, Florida: WTSP. Archived from the original on 1 December 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ Olsen, Erik (18 August 2008). "Out of Commission Above Water, but Not Below It". New York Times. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ "WWII-era ship becomes sunken reef off Key West". AT&T Online News. 27 May 2009. Retrieved 18 July 2009.
- ^ "Ship to Become 2nd Largest Intentional Reef". New York Times. Associated Press. 25 May 2009. Retrieved 25 May 2009.
- ^ Hudy, Paul. "North Carolina Shipwrecks". nc-wreckdiving.com. Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- ^ Mobile Riverine Force Association (October 4, 1999). "History of The USS Indra (ARL-37)". Archived from the original on February 23, 2015. Retrieved October 20, 2014.
- ^ "More Subway Cars Slated For Reefs". United Press International. Retrieved 22 January 2020.
- ^ "Cancun's Underwater Museum Blooms In Time For Spring". Cancun Vacation Blog. 2010-04-07. Retrieved 2017-10-05.
- ^ "HMAS Swan – History". Michael McFayden's Scuba Diving Web Site. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ "Welcome to the official former HMAS Perth Website". Archived from the original on March 20, 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- ^ "Dive the Ex-HMAS Hobart". Archived from the original on 27 February 2015. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ "Ex-HMAS Brisbane Conservation Park". Archived from the original on May 11, 2012. Retrieved 12 July 2012.
- ^ "ex-HMAS Canberra Reef". Dive the ex-HMAS Canberra. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ "Ex-HMAS Tobruk scuttled off the Queensland coast to become dive wreck". ABC. Retrieved 29 June 2018.
- ^ Costa Rican Electricity Institute launches construction of artificial reef
- ^ Playa Hermosa Artificial Reef Project
- ^ Our latest weapon in the fight to save dying coral reefs is … a concrete pod?
- ^ ATOSSTA
- ^ MOREEF
- ^ Bennett, Owen (19 November 2013). "Gibraltar: We are just one shot away from military conflict, warns MP amid new standoff". Daily Express. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ Kim, Soo (1 July 2014). "The world's largest underwater theme park planned in Dubai". The Telegraph. Retrieved 5 April 2015.
- ^ "Jordan Creates Artificial Reef From Decommissioned Military Vehicles". New York Times. 25 July 2019. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- ^ "Spindrift Reefs Dive Center". Archived from the original on 2016-01-09.
- ^ https://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-44994182
- ^ Kirkbride-Smith, Anne E.; Wheeler, Philip M.; Johnson, Magnus L. (23 July 2013). "The Relationship between Diver Experience Levels and Perceptions of Attractiveness of Artificial Reefs – Examination of a Potential Management Tool". PLOS ONE. 8 (7): e68899. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068899. PMC 3720904. PMID 23894372.