The History Portal
Herodotus (c. 484 BC – c. 425 BC) is often
considered the "father of history"
History (from Greek ἱστορία, historia, meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study of the past. Events occurring before the invention of writing systems are considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term that relates to past events as well as the memory, discovery, collection, organization, presentation, and interpretation of information about these events. Historians place the past in context using historical sources such as written documents, oral accounts, ecological markers, and material objects including art and artifacts.
History also includes the academic discipline which uses narrative to describe, examine, question, and analyze a sequence of past events, and investigate the patterns of cause and effect that are related to them. Historians seek to understand and represent the past through narratives. They often debate which narrative best explains an event, as well as the significance of different causes and effects. Historians also debate the nature of history and its usefulness by discussing the study of the discipline as an end in itself and as a way of providing "perspective" on the problems of the present.
Stories common to a particular culture, but not supported by external sources (such as the tales surrounding King Arthur), are usually classified as cultural heritage or legends. History differs from myth in that it is supported by evidence. However, ancient influences have helped spawn variant interpretations of the nature of history which have evolved over the centuries and continue to change today. The modern study of history is wide-ranging, and includes the study of specific regions and the study of certain topical or thematic elements of historical investigation. History is often taught as part of primary and secondary education, and the academic study of history is a major discipline in university studies.
Herodotus, a 5th-century BC Greek historian is often considered (within the Western tradition) to be the "father of history", or, the "father of lies". Along with his contemporary Thucydides, he helped form the foundations for the modern study of human history. Their works continue to be read today, and the gap between the culture-focused Herodotus and the military-focused Thucydides remains a point of contention or approach in modern historical writing. In East Asia, a state chronicle, the Spring and Autumn Annals, was known to be compiled from as early as 722 BC although only 2nd-century BC texts have survived. (Full article...)
Featured article –
) was the world's first artificial nuclear reactor
. On 2 December 1942, the first human-made self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction
was initiated in CP-1, during an experiment led by Enrico Fermi
. The secret development of the reactor was the first major technical achievement for the Manhattan Project
, the Allied
effort to create atomic bombs
during World War II
. Developed by the Metallurgical Laboratory
at the University of Chicago
, it was built under the west viewing stands of the original Stagg Field
. Although the project's civilian and military leaders had misgivings about the possibility of a disastrous runaway reaction, they trusted Fermi's safety calculations and decided they could carry out the experiment in a densely populated area. Fermi described the reactor as "a crude pile of black bricks and wooden timbers".
The reactor was assembled in November 1942, by a team that included Fermi, Leo Szilard
(who had previously formulated an idea
for non-fission chain reaction
), Leona Woods
, Herbert L. Anderson
, Walter Zinn
, Martin D. Whitaker
, and George Weil
. The reactor used natural uranium. This required a very large amount of material in order to reach criticality, along with graphite used as a neutron moderator
. The reactor contained 45,000 ultra-pure graphite
blocks weighing 360 short tons (330 t), and was fueled by 5.4 short tons (4.9 t) of uranium
metal and 45 short tons (41 t) of uranium oxide
. Unlike most subsequent nuclear reactors, it had no radiation shielding or cooling system as it operated at very low power – about one-half watt. (Full article...
Charles Moss Duke Jr.
(born October 3, 1935) is an American former astronaut
, U.S. Air Force
(USAF) officer and test pilot
. As lunar module
pilot of Apollo 16
in 1972, he became the tenth (and as of 2021 remains) and youngest person to walk on the Moon
, at age 36 years and 201 days.
A 1957 graduate of the United States Naval Academy
, he joined the USAF. He completed advanced flight training on the F-86 Sabre
at Moody Air Force Base
in Georgia, where he was a distinguished graduate. After completion of this training, Duke served three years as a fighter pilot with the 526th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
at Ramstein Air Base
in West Germany
. After graduating from the Aerospace Research Pilot School
in September 1965, he stayed on as an instructor teaching control systems and flying in the F-101 Voodoo
, F-104 Starfighter
, and T-33 Shooting Star
. (Full article...
Lieutenant General Sir Stanley George Savige Captain
Stanley Savige of the Australian Imperial Force, 1918
, KBE, CB, DSO, MC, ED
(26 June 1890 – 15 May 1954) was an Australian Army
soldier and officer who served in the First World War and Second World War.
In March 1915, after the outbreak of the First World War, Savige enlisted in the First Australian Imperial Force
. He served in the ranks during the Gallipoli Campaign
, and received a commission
. He later served on the Western Front
, where he was twice recommended for the Military Cross for bravery. In 1918, he joined Dunsterforce
and served in the Caucasus Campaign
, during which he was instrumental in protecting thousands of Assyrian
refugees. He subsequently wrote a book, Stalky's Forlorn Hope
, about his experiences. After the war he played a key role in the establishment of Legacy Australia
, the war widows and orphans benefit fund. (Full article...
Plan and left elevation drawing of the Lyon
class as depicted in the Journal of United States Artillery
The Lyon class
was a set of battleships
planned for the French Navy
) in 1913, with construction scheduled to begin in 1915. The class was to have comprised four ships, named Lyon
, and Tourville
. The first two were named for cities in France, and the latter pair honored the French admirals Abraham Duquesne
and Anne Hilarion de Tourville
. The Lyon
class' design was an improvement on the previous Normandie class
, utilizing a fourth quadruple-gun turret
to mount a total of sixteen 34 cm (13.4 in) guns. Construction on the Lyon
s was cancelled due to the August 1914 outbreak of World War I
, before any of the ships were laid down
. (Full article...
A Fleet Air Arm crewman chalks a message on the 1,600-pound bomb carried by a Fairey Barracuda of HMS Furious
was a Second World War Royal Navy
air raid that targeted the German battleship Tirpitz
. The operation sought to damage or destroy Tirpitz
at her base in Kaafjord
in the far north of Norway before she could become fully operational again following a period of repairs.
The British decision to strike Kaafjord was motivated by fears that the battleship, upon re-entering service, would attack strategically important convoys
carrying supplies to the Soviet Union. Removing the threat posed by Tirpitz
would also allow the Allies to redeploy the capital ships
which had to be held in the North Sea to counter her. After four months of training and preparations, the British Home Fleet
sailed on 30 March 1944 and aircraft launched from five aircraft carriers
struck Kaafjord on 3 April. The raid achieved surprise, and the British aircraft met little opposition. Fifteen bombs hit the battleship, and strafing by fighter aircraft
inflicted heavy casualties on her gun crews. Four British aircraft and nine airmen were lost during the operation. (Full article...
Pepi I Meryre
(also Pepy I
) was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh
, third king of the Sixth Dynasty of Egypt
, who ruled for over 40 years at the turn of the 24th and 23rd centuries BC, toward the end of the Old Kingdom period
. He was the son of Teti
, the founder of the dynasty and ascended the throne only after the brief intervening reign of the shadowy Userkare
. His mother was Iput
, who may have been a daughter of Unas
, the final ruler of the preceding Fifth Dynasty
. Pepi I, who had at least six consorts, was succeeded by his son Merenre Nemtyemsaf I
, with whom he may have shared power in a coregency at the very end of his reign. Pepi II Neferkare
, who might also have been Pepi I's son, succeeded Merenre.
Several difficulties accumulated during Pepi's reign, beginning with the possible murder of his father and the ensuing reign of Userkare. Later, probably after his twentieth year of reign, Pepi faced a harem conspiracy hatched by one of his consorts who may have tried to have her son designated heir to the throne, and possibly another conspiracy involving his vizier
at the end of his reign. Confronted with the protracted decline of pharaonic power at the expense of the emerging dynasties of local officials, Pepi reacted with a vast architectural program involving the construction of temples
dedicated to local gods
and numerous chapels for his own cult throughout Egypt, reinforcing his presence in the provinces. Egypt's prosperity allowed Pepi to become the most prolific builder of the Old Kingdom. At the same time, Pepi favored the rise of small provincial centres and recruited officials of non-noble extraction to curtail the influence of powerful local families. Continuing Teti's policy, Pepi expanded a network of warehouses accessible to royal envoys and from which taxes and labor could easily be collected. Finally, he buttressed his power after the harem conspiracy by forming alliances with Khui, the provincial nomarch
, marrying two of his daughters, Ankhesenpepi I
and Ankhesenpepi II
, and making both Khui's wife Nebet
and her son Djau viziers
. The Egyptian state's external policy under Pepi comprised military campaigns against Nubia
and the southern Levant
, landing troops on the Levantine coast using Egyptian transport boats. Trade with Byblos
and the oases of the Western Desert
flourished, while Pepi launched mining and quarrying expeditions to Sinai and further afield. (Full article...
An infantryman from the Australian 2/43rd Battalion in a bomber dispersal bay at Labuan airstrip on 10 June 1945.
The Battle of Labuan
was an engagement fought between Allied
and Imperial Japanese
forces on the island of Labuan
off Borneo during June 1945. It formed part of the Australian invasion of North Borneo
, and was initiated by the Allied forces as part of a plan to capture the Brunei Bay
area and develop it into a base to support future offensives.
Following several weeks of air attacks and a short naval bombardment, soldiers of the Australian 24th Brigade
were landed on Labuan from American and Australian ships on 10 June. The Australians quickly captured the island's harbour and main airfield. The greatly outnumbered Japanese garrison was mainly concentrated in a fortified position in the interior of Labuan, and offered little resistance to the landing. The initial Australian attempts to penetrate the Japanese position in the days after the invasion were not successful, and the area was subjected to a heavy bombardment. A Japanese raiding force also attempted to attack Allied positions on 21 June, but was defeated. Later that day, Australian forces assaulted the Japanese position. In the following days, Australian patrols killed or captured the remaining Japanese troops on the island. A total of 389 Japanese personnel were killed on Labuan and 11 were captured. Australian casualties included 34 killed. (Full article...
The seal of the Confederate government of Kentucky, showing an arm holding the 13th star of the Confederacy. The motto voce populi
for "by the voice of the people
The Confederate government of Kentucky
was a shadow government
established for the Commonwealth
by a self-constituted group of Confederate
sympathizers during the American Civil War
. The shadow government never replaced the elected government in Frankfort
, which had strong Union
sympathies. Neither was it able to gain the whole support of Kentucky's citizens; its jurisdiction extended only as far as Confederate battle lines in the Commonwealth. Nevertheless, the provisional government was recognized by the Confederate States of America, and Kentucky was admitted to the Confederacy on December 10, 1861. Kentucky, the final state admitted to the Confederacy, was represented by the 13th (central) star on the Confederate battle flag
.Bowling Green, Kentucky
, was designated the Confederate capital of Kentucky at a convention in nearby Russellville
. Due to the military situation in the state, the provisional government was exiled
and traveled with the Army of Tennessee
for most of its existence. For a short time in the autumn of 1862, the Confederate Army
controlled Frankfort, the only time a Union capital was captured by Confederate forces. During this occupation, General Braxton Bragg
attempted to install the provisional government as the permanent authority in the Commonwealth. However, Union General Don Carlos Buell
ambushed the inauguration ceremony and drove the provisional government from the state for the final time. From that point forward, the government existed primarily on paper and was dissolved at the end of the war. (Full article...
Lester Joseph Brain
Qantas Captain Lester Brain in the 1930s
(27 February 1903 – 30 June 1980) was a pioneer Australian aviator and airline executive. Born in New South Wales
, he trained with the Royal Australian Air Force
(RAAF) before joining Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services
(Qantas) as a pilot in 1924. He was awarded the Air Force Cross
in 1929, after locating the lost aircraft Kookaburra
in northern Australia. Having risen to Chief Pilot at Qantas by 1930, he was appointed Flying Operations Manager in 1938. As a member of the RAAF reserve
, Brain coordinated his airline's support for the Australian military during World War II
. He earned a King's Commendation
for his rescue efforts during an air raid on Broome
, Western Australia, in 1942, and was promoted to wing commander
Seeing little prospect for advancement at Qantas once the war had ended, Brain left to join the fledgling government-owned domestic carrier Trans Australia Airlines
(TAA) in June 1946. Appointed its first general manager, he swiftly built up the organisation to the stage where it could commence scheduled operations later in the year. By the time he resigned in March 1955, TAA was firmly established as one half of the Commonwealth government's two-airline system
. After his departure from TAA, Brain became managing director of de Havilland Aircraft
in Sydney, before joining the board of East-West Airlines
as a consultant in January 1961. Appointed an Officer of the Order of Australia
in January 1979, Lester Brain died in June the following year, at the age of seventy-seven. (Full article...
was a sea-going torpedo boat
that was operated by the Royal Yugoslav Navy
between 1921 and 1941. Originally 78 T
, a 250t-class torpedo boat
of the Austro-Hungarian Navy
built in 1914, she was armed with two 66 mm (2.6 in) guns, four 450 mm (17.7 in) torpedo tubes
, and could carry 10–12 naval mines
. She saw active service during World War I
, performing convoy
, escort and minesweeping
tasks, anti-submarine operations
and shore bombardment
missions. Following Austria-Hungary
's defeat in 1918, she was allocated to the Navy of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, which subsequently became the Royal Yugoslav Navy, and was renamed T3
. At the time, she and the seven other 250t-class boats were the only modern sea-going vessels of the fledgling maritime force.
During the interwar period
and the rest of the navy were involved in training exercises and cruises to friendly ports, but activity was limited by reduced naval budgets. The ship was captured by the Italians
during the Axis invasion of Yugoslavia
in April 1941. After her main armament was modernised, she served with the Royal Italian Navy
under her Yugoslav designation, although she was only used for coastal and second-line tasks. Following the Italian capitulation
in September 1943, she was captured by Germany
and, after being fitted with additional anti-aircraft
guns, served with the German Navy
or the Navy of the Independent State of Croatia
. In German/Croatian service her crew of 52 consisted entirely of Croatian
officers and enlisted men. She was sunk by Allied
aircraft in February 1945 while in the port of Trieste
, where she had been built. (Full article...
The Anbar campaign
consisted of fighting between the United States military
, together with Iraqi Government
forces, and Sunni insurgents
in the western Iraqi
governorate of Al Anbar
. The Iraq War
lasted from 2003 to 2011, but the majority of the fighting and counterinsurgency
campaign in Anbar took place between April 2004 and September 2007. Although the fighting initially featured heavy urban warfare
primarily between insurgents and U.S. Marines
, insurgents in later years focused on ambushing the American and Iraqi security forces with improvised explosive devices
(IED's), large scale attacks on combat outposts, and car bombings. Almost 9,000 Iraqis and 1,335 Americans were killed in the campaign, many in the Euphrates River Valley and the Sunni Triangle
around the cities of Fallujah
Al Anbar, the only Sunni
-dominated province in Iraq, saw little fighting in the initial invasion
. Following the fall of Baghdad
it was occupied by the U.S. Army
's 82nd Airborne Division
. Violence began on 28 April 2003 when 17 Iraqis were killed in Fallujah
by U.S. soldiers during an anti-American
demonstration. In early 2004 the U.S. Army relinquished command of the governorate to the Marines. By April 2004 the governorate was in full-scale revolt. Savage fighting occurred in both Fallujah and Ramadi by the end of 2004, including the Second Battle of Fallujah
. Violence escalated throughout 2005 and 2006 as the two sides struggled to secure the Western Euphrates River
Valley. During this time, Al Qaeda in Iraq
(AQI) became the governorate's main Sunni insurgent group and turned the provincial capital of Ramadi into its stronghold. The Marine Corps issued an intelligence report
in late 2006 declaring that the governorate would be lost without a significant additional commitment of troops. (Full article...
Cap badge of the Gloucestershire Regiment
The Gloucestershire Regiment
, commonly referred to as the Glosters, was a line infantry regiment
of the British Army
from 1881 until 1994. It traced its origins to Colonel Gibson's Regiment of Foot, which was raised in 1694 and later became the 28th (North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
. The regiment was formed by the merger of the 28th Regiment with the 61st (South Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot
. It inherited the unique distinction in the British Army of wearing a badge on the back of its headdress as well as the front, a tradition that originated with the 28th Regiment after it fought in two ranks back to back at the Battle of Alexandria
in 1801. At its formation the regiment comprised two regular
, two militia
and two volunteer
battalions, and saw its first action during the Second Boer War
Before the First World War
, the regiment's four auxiliary battalions were converted to three Territorial Force
battalions and a Special Reserve
battalion, and a further 18 battalions were added to the regiment's establishment during the war. Sixteen battalions of the regiment saw active service in France and Flanders, Italy, Gallipoli, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia and Salonika, losing a total of 8,100 men killed and winning 72 different battle honours
. Four awards of the Victoria Cross
(VC) were made to soldiers serving with the regiment. The wartime battalions were disbanded as the war ended, and just before the Second World War
, two of the territorial battalions were re-purposed and ceased to have any affiliation with the regiment. On the eve of the war, the remaining territorial battalion was duplicated, and another five battalions were raised on the outbreak of war, though most of these were disbanded or re-purposed as the war progressed. Four battalions saw active service under the regiment's colours during the war. The 2nd and 5th Battalions both fought in the Battle of France
and, after being lost almost in its entirety during the Battle of Dunkirk
, the re-formed 2nd Battalion landed at Gold Beach
and fought in the Allied
campaign in North-West Europe. The 1st Battalion was involved in the retreat from Rangoon during the Japanese conquest of Burma
, and the 10th Battalion saw active service in the defeat of Japanese forces during the Burma Campaign 1944–45
. (Full article...
of Mnesarete, daughter of Socrates; a young servant (left) is facing her dead mistress. Attica
, c. 380 BC. (Glyptothek
was an accepted practice in ancient Greece
, as in other societies of the time. Some Ancient Greek writers (including, most notably, Aristotle
) described slavery as natural and even necessary. This paradigm was notably questioned in Socratic dialogues
; the Stoics
produced the first recorded condemnation of slavery.
The principal use of slaves was in agriculture, but they were also used in stone quarries or mines, and as domestic servants. Athens
had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 5th and 6th centuries BC, with an average of three or four slaves per household, except in poor families. Slaves were legally prohibited from participating in politics, which was reserved for citizens. (Full article...
Petra is an archaeological site in Jordan, lying in a basin among the mountains which form the eastern flank of Wadi Araba, the great valley running from the Dead Sea to the Gulf of Aqaba. It is famous for having many stone structures carved into the rock.
Edward Gibbon (1737–1794) was an English historian who published The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire in six volumes between 1776 and 1788. Born in Putney, Surrey, he became a voracious reader while being raised by his aunt, and was sent to study at Magdalen College, Oxford, and in Switzerland. Returning to England, in 1761 Gibbon published his first book, Essai sur l'Étude de la Littérature. This was well received, but Gibbon's next book was a failure. In the early 1770s Gibbon began writing his history of the Roman Empire, which was received with great praise.
A baseball team composed mostly of child laborers from an Indiana glassmaking factory, as photographed by Lewis Hine in August 1908. Hine (1874–1940) was an American sociologist who promoted the use of photography as an educational medium and means for social change. Beginning in 1908, he spent ten years photographing child labor for the National Child Labor Committee. The project was a dangerous one, and Hine had to disguise himself – at times as a fire inspector, post card vendor, Bible salesman or industrial photographer – to avoid the factory police and foremen.
Jews captured by SS and SD troops during the suppression of the Warsaw Ghetto Uprising are forced to leave their shelter and march to the Umschlagplatz for deportation. The SD trooper pictured second from the right, is Josef Blösche, who was identified by Polish authorities using this photograph. Blösche was tried for war crimes in Erfurt, East Germany in 1969, sentenced to death and executed in July of that year.
A Chola dynasty sculpture depicting Shiva. In Hinduism, Shiva is the deity of destruction and one of the most important gods; in this sculpture he is dancing as Nataraja, the divine dancer who unravels the world in preparation for it being remade by Brahma.
A group of Australian infantry wearing Small Box Respirators (SBRs) at the Third Battle of Ypres in September 1917. After the introduction of poison gas in World War I, countermeasures were developed. SBRs represented the pinnacle of gas mask development during the war, a mouthpiece connected via a hose to a box filter (hanging around the wearer's neck in this picture), which in turn contained granules of chemicals that neutralised the gas. The SBR was the prized possession of the ordinary infantryman; when the British were forced to retreat during the German Spring Offensive of 1918, it was found that while some troops had discarded their rifles, hardly any had left behind their respirators.
The two European Axis leaders during World War II, Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler, riding in an automobile, circa June 1940. This photo was found in Eva Braun's personal photo albums and is credited to her, though whether she was the true photographer is unknown.
De Magere Compagnie (completed 1637), which depicts a company of schutterij, a voluntary city guard or citizen militia in the medieval and early modern Netherlands. Frans Hals was commissioned to create this, but he was unable to complete it after three years, and the company hired Pieter Codde to finish it. Group portraits such as this of schutterij were known as schuttersstuk, and were popular among the guards themselves.
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Featured biography –
This is a Featured article, which represents some of the best content on English Wikipedia.
Nikita Zotov, rotogravure
by Alexandr Osipov, 1882–1883
Count Nikita Moiseevich Zotov (Russian: Никита Моисеевич Зотов, tr. Nikita Moiseevich Zotov, IPA: [nʲ'kʲta moɨ'sʲɛɪvʲɪt͡ɕ 'zotv] (listen)) (1644 – December 1717) was a childhood tutor and lifelong friend of Russian Tsar Peter the Great. Historians disagree on the quality of Zotov's tutoring. Robert K. Massie, for example, praises his efforts, but Lindsey Hughes criticizes the education that he gave to the future tsar.
Not much is known about Zotov's life aside from his connection to Peter. Zotov left Moscow for a diplomatic mission to Crimea
in 1680 and returned to Moscow before 1683. He became part of the "Jolly Company", a group of several dozen of Peter's friends that eventually became The All-Joking, All-Drunken Synod of Fools and Jesters
. Zotov was mockingly appointed "Prince-Pope" of the Synod, and regularly led them in games and celebrations. He accompanied Peter on many important occasions, such as the Azov campaigns
and the torture of the Streltsy
after their uprising
. Zotov held a number of state posts, including from 1701 a leading position in the Tsar's personal secretariat. Three years before his death, Zotov married a woman 50 years his junior. He died in December 1717 of unknown causes. (Full article...
On this day
What is the use of living, if it be not to strive for noble causes and to make this muddled world a better place for those who will live in it after we are gone?
The following are images from various history-related articles on Wikipedia.
Painting of Murong Xianbei archer, in Late Antiquity, nomads across Eurasia, began to use the stirrup. Horse riding warriors could be devastating in combat.
Gold stag with eagle's head, and ten further heads in the antlers. An object inspired by the art of the Siberian Altai mountain, possibly Pazyryk, unearthed at the site of Nalinggaotu, Shenmu County, near Xi'an, China. Possibly from the "Hun people who lived in the prairie in Northern China". Dated to the 4th–3rd century BC, or Han Dynasty period. Shaanxi History Museum.
A political map of the Mauryan Empire, including notable cities, such as the capital Pataliputra, and site of the Buddha's enlightenment.
The early Muslim conquests
Expansion under Muhammad, 622–632
Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
The Ezana Stone records negus Ezana's conversion to Christianity and conquests of his neighbors.
Roman Empire 117 AD. The Senatorial provinces were acquired first under the Roman Republic and were under the Roman Senate's control; the Imperial provinces were controlled directly by the Roman emperor.
Map of the approximate political boundaries in Europe around 450 AD
A Japanese depiction of a Portuguese trading carrack. Advances in shipbuilding technology during the Late Middle Ages would pave the way for the global European presence characteristic of the early modern period.
10th-century Ottonian ivory plaque depicting Christ receiving a church from Otto I
Cossacks became the backbone of the early Russian Army.
Map showing growth of Frankish power from 481 to 814
Egyptian soldiers from Hatshepsut's expedition to the Land of Punt as depicted from her temple at Deir el-Bahri.
Engraved world map (including magnetic declination lines) by Leonhard Euler from his school atlas "Geographischer Atlas bestehend in 44 Land-Charten" first published 1753 in Berlin
Technical drawing of Roman Ballista mechanism.
World Colonization of 1492 (Early Modern World), 1550, 1660, 1754 (Age of Enlightenment), 1822 (Industrial revolution), 1885 (European Hegemony), 1914 (World War I era), 1938 (World War II era), 1959 (Cold War era) and 1974, 2008 (Recent history).
Battle of Vienna, 12 September 1683
Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) as described by Herodotus in the 5th century BC.
A painting depecting the Qing Chinese celebrating a victory over the Kingdom of Tungning in Taiwan. This work was a collaboration between Chinese and European painters.
"If there is something you know, communicate it. If there is something you don't know, search for it." An engraving from the 1772 edition of the Encyclopédie; Truth (center) is surrounded by light and unveiled by the figures to the right, Philosophy and Reason
Bourgeoisie takes more and more importance throughout the modern era.
Cishou Temple Pagoda, built in 1576: the Chinese believed that building pagodas on certain sites according to geomantic principles brought about auspicious events; merchant-funding for such projects was needed by the late Ming period.
Execution of some of the ringleaders of the jacquerie, from a 14th-century manuscript of the Chroniques de France ou de St Denis
The Chinese Han Dynasty dominated the East Asia region at the beginning of the first millennium AD
Gutenberg reviewing a press proof (a colored engraving created probably in the 19th century)
Reconstruction of an early medieval peasant village in Bavaria
Europe and the Mediterranean Sea in 1190
Nok sculpture of a sitted person
The Iron Age kingdom of Israel (blue) and kingdom of Judah (yellow)
Model for the Three Superior Planets and Venus from Georg von Peuerbach, Theoricae novae planetarum.
A medieval scholar making precise measurements in a 14th-century manuscript illustration
Roman cast terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter Ammon, a form of Zeus 1st century AD. Gods, could sometimes be transferred or adopted by many civilizations, and then adjusted for local conditions.
A possible representation of a "yogi" or "proto-Shiva", 2600–1900 BC
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