The Act Zluky (Ukrainian: Акт Злуки, IPA: [ˈɑkt ˈzlukɪ], "Unification Act") was an agreement signed on January 22, 1919, by the Ukrainian People's Republic and the West Ukrainian People's Republic on the St Sophia Square in Kyiv. Since 1999 the Day of Unity of Ukraine, celebrated every year on January 22 to mark the signing of the treaty, is a state holiday; but not a public holiday.
A copy of the Act Zluky, signed on January 22, 1919
The agreement was aimed at creating a unified Ukrainian state, a movement long-awaited by the intelligentsia on both sides. However, the Act Zluky was regarded as purely symbolic in that both governments still retained their own separate armies, administrations and government structure.
The text of the universal made by the Directorate of the Ukrainian People's Republic:
The territory of Ukraine, divided over the centuries, including Galicia, Bukovyna, Carpathian Ruthenia, and Dnieper Ukraine will now become a great united Ukraine. Dreams, for which the best sons of Ukraine fought and died for, have come true.
According to the treaty Galicia would become an autonomous part of Ukraine.
However Ukraine was unable to gain independence and in December 1920 the Ukrainian SSR of the Soviet Union was established comprising most of the territory of the Ukrainian People's Republic. The territories of the West Ukrainian People's Republic became mostly part of Poland. In 1939 the territories of both became part of the Ukrainian SSR.
Over 300,000 Ukrainians participated in the human chain
on January 21, 1990.
To mark the 71st anniversary of the signing of the Act Zluky in 1990, over 300,000 Ukrainians created a human chain (approx. 482 km (300 mi) long) from the capital Kyiv to the western Ukrainian city of Lviv on January 21, 1990. The chain, the largest public demonstration in Ukraine since the beginning of Glasnost, was funded by the People's Movement of Ukraine (Rukh) and was partly inspired by the Baltic Way which had taken place the previous year. Also, for the first time since the period of the Ukrainian People's Republic, the blue and yellow national flag was raised.
Day of Unity of Ukraine
On January 21, 1999, the President of Ukraine Leonid Kuchma decreed the "Day of Reunion of Ukraine" (Ukrainian: День Соборностi України, Den’ Sobornosti Ukrayiny), a government holiday, celebrated every year on January 22 to mark the political and historical significance of the 1919 agreement. It is not a public holiday. In December 2011, President Viktor Yanukovych caused public controversy when he merged the "Day of Freedom" into this day, naming it officially the "Day of Unity and Freedom of Ukraine" (Ukrainian: День Соборності та Свободи України, Den’ Sobornosti ta Svobody Ukrayiny). The "Day of Freedom" was created in 2005 by President Viktor Yushchenko, Yanukovych's opponent, to be celebrated on November 22 in commemoration of the Orange Revolution. President Yanukovych stated he changed the day of celebration because of "numerous appeals from the public". Mid-October 2014 President Petro Poroshenko undid Yanukovych's merging when he decreed that November 21 will be celebrated as "Day of Dignity and Freedom" in honour of the Euromaidan-protests that started on November 21, 2013.
- ^ (in Ukrainian) In Ukraine celebrates Day of Unity "living" chains and emblems flash mob, Ukrayinska Pravda (January 22, 2017)
(in Russian) In Kharkiv, we celebrated the Day of catholicity (photo), SQ (January 22, 2017)
- ^ a b Yanukovych condemns attempts to undermine unity, Kyiv Post (January 21, 2011)
- ^ The Day of Unity, opinion-times.com
- ^ a b Culture Smart! Ukraine by Anna Shevchenko, Kuperard, 2006, ISBN 978-1-85733-327-5
- ^ a b Subtelny, Orest (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. p. 362. ISBN 0-8020-8390-0.
- ^ The Moulding of Ukraine:The Constitutional Politics of State Formation by Kataryna Wolczuk, Central European University Press, 2001, ISBN 978-963-9241-25-1 (page 44)
- ^ a b c Europa World Year Book 2-2004 publication, Routledge, 2004, ISBN 978-1-85743-255-8 (page 4292)
- ^ a b c d Subtelny, p. 576.
- ^ Rohoza, Borys. "Great Zluka". Khreshchatyk (in Ukrainian). Hornyak. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- ^ "Yushchenko asked the political elite to celebrate the Day of Reunion". Korrespondent (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- ^ a b Yanukovych signs decree on new holiday replacing Ukrainian Independence Day, Kyiv Post (December 30, 2011)
- ^ Orel, Svitlana. "We cannot forget". Vechirka.com.ua (in Ukrainian). Archived from the original on August 26, 2007. Retrieved August 20, 2007.
- ^ Laws of Ukraine. Presidential decree No. 42/99: On Day of Reunion of Ukraine. Adopted on January 21, 1999. (Ukrainian)
- ^ a b Yanukovych cancels Freedom Day on Nov. 22, Z I K (December 31, 2011)
- ^ Yanukovych abolishes Day of Liberty on November 22 Archived February 19, 2014, at the Wayback Machine, "Observer" (December 30, 2011)
- ^ President signs Decree On Celebration of Some Memorable Dates and Professional Holidays Archived January 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, President.gov.ua (December 30, 2011)
- ^ Day of Freedom: here comes the end to revolutions Archived November 26, 2011, at the Wayback Machine, ForUm (November 23, 2011)
- ^ Ukrainians to celebrate Day of Dignity and Freedom on November 21, Unity Day on January 22, Interfax-Ukraine (November 13, 2014)