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Adolf "Ulf" Konstantin Jakob Freiherr Pilar von Pilchau (23 May 1851 – 17 June 1925) was a Baltic German politician, regent of the United Baltic Duchy (1918).
Pilar von Pilchau became the owner of the Audern manor, his birthplace after his father's death in 1870. In 1881 he rented Sauck manor. Both are situated in modern Pärnu County, Estonia.
He started his political and administrative career in 1876 as a judge in the first district of Pernau (Pärnu) and proceeded from there to the position of Pernau city councillor in 1879. Three years later he began working for the Livonian Noble Corporation, the local government. He filled in the position of the treasurer. In 1899 he was elected the land councillor of Livonia which was a high position in the local government of Baltic Germans.
From 1908 to 1918 von Pilchau served as the land marshal of Livonia, the leader of the noble corporation. From 1912–17 he was also a member of the State Council of Imperial Russia as a representative of Livonia.
He was one of the persons behind the creation of the short-lived United Baltic Duchy and the only Chairman of its Regency Council from 5 November 1918 to 28 November 1918.
On 3 January 1919, Pilar von Pilchau went into exile and lived for several years in Weimar Germany. He returned to independent Estonia in 1923 with his wife and settled in Pärnu where he died two years later.
- ^ Regarding personal names: Freiherr is a former title (translated as Baron). In Germany since 1919, it forms part of family names. The feminine forms are Freifrau and Freiin.