Alan Louis Charles Bullock, Baron Bullock, FBA (13 December 1914 – 2 February 2004) was a British historian. He is best known for his book Hitler: A Study in Tyranny (1952), the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler, which influenced many other Hitler biographies.
Early life and career
Bullock was born in Trowbridge in Wiltshire, England where his father worked as a gardener and a Unitarian preacher. He was educated at Bradford Grammar School and Wadham College, Oxford where he read classics and modern history. After graduating in 1938, he worked as a research assistant for Winston Churchill, who was writing his History of the English-Speaking Peoples. He was a Harmsworth Senior Scholar at Merton College, Oxford from 1938 to 1940. During World War II, Bullock worked for the European Service of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). After the war, he returned to Oxford as a history fellow at New College.
He was the censor of St Catherine's Society (1952-1962) and then founding master of St Catherine's College, Oxford (1962-1981), a college for undergraduates and graduates, divided between students of the sciences and the arts. He was credited with massive fundraising efforts to develop the college. Later, he was the first full-time Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.
Hitler: A Study in Tyranny
In 1952, Bullock published Hitler: A Study in Tyranny, the first comprehensive biography of Adolf Hitler, which he based on the transcripts of the Nuremberg Trials. This book dominated Hitler scholarship for many years. The book characterised Hitler as an opportunistic Machtpolitiker ("power politician"). In Bullock's opinion, Hitler was a "mountebank", an opportunistic adventurer devoid of principles, beliefs or scruples whose actions throughout his career were motivated only by a lust for power. Bullock's views led in the 1950s to a debate with Hugh Trevor-Roper who argued that Hitler did possess beliefs, albeit repulsive ones, and that his actions were motivated by them. Bullock's Guardian obituary commented that "Bullock's famous maxim 'Hitler was jobbed into power by backstairs intrigue' has stood the test of time."
When reviewing Hitler and Stalin in The Times in 1991, John Campbell wrote of Hitler: A Study in Tyranny: "Although written so soon after the end of the war and despite a steady flow of fresh evidence and reinterpretation, it has not been surpassed in nearly 40 years: an astonishing achievement."
In subsequent works, Bullock to some extent changed his mind about Hitler. His later writings show the dictator as much more of an ideologue, who pursued the ideas expressed in Mein Kampf (and elsewhere) despite their consequences. This has become a widely accepted view of Hitler, particularly in relation to the Holocaust.
Taking note of the shift in interest among professional historians towards social history in the 1960s, Bullock agreed that in general, deep long-term social forces are decisive in history, but not always, for there are times when the Great Man is in his views decisive. In revolutionary circumstances, "It is possible for an individual to exert a powerful even a decisive influence on the way events develop and the policies that are followed."
Bullock's other works included The Humanist Tradition in the West (1985), and The Life and Times of Ernest Bevin, a three-volume biography of British Labour Foreign Secretary Ernest Bevin. He was also editor of The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought (1977), a project he suggested to the publisher when he found he could not define the word "hermeneutics". He had earlier co-edited with Maurice Shock a collection on The Liberal Tradition: From Fox to Keynes.
In the mid-1970s, Bullock used his committee skills to produce a report which proved to be influential in the classroom: A Language for Life, about reading and the teaching of English, was published in 1975. Bullock also chaired the committee of inquiry on industrial democracy commissioned in December 1975 by the second Labour Government of Harold Wilson. The committee's report, which was also known as the Bullock Report, published in 1977, recommended worker's control in large companies with employees having a right to hold representative worker directorships.
Bullock also appeared as a political pundit, particularly during the BBC's coverage of the 1959 British general election.
Late in his life, Bullock published Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (1991). A massive and influential work which he described in the introduction as "essentially a political biography, set against the background of the times in which they lived". He showed how the careers of Hitler and Joseph Stalin fed off each other to some extent. Bullock comes to a thesis that Stalin's ability to consolidate power in his home country and, unlike Hitler, not to over-extend himself enabled him to retain power longer than Hitler. It was awarded the 1992 Wolfson History Prize.
American historian Ronald Spector, writing in The Washington Post, praised Bullock's ability to write about the development of Nazism and Soviet Communism without either abstract generalization or irrelevant detail. "The writing is invariably interesting and informed and there are new insights and cogent analysis in every chapter," he wrote.
Nachmani says Hitler and Stalin:
- come out as two blood-thirsty, pathologically evil, sanguine tyrants, who are sure of the presence of determinism, hence having unshakeable beliefs that Destiny assigned on them historical missions—the one to pursue a social industrialized revolution in the Soviet Union, the other to turn Germany into a global empire.
Bullock was decorated with the award of the Chevalier, Legion of Honour in 1970, and knighted in 1972, becoming Sir Alan Bullock and on 30 January 1976 he was created a life peer as Baron Bullock, of Leafield in the County of Oxfordshire. His writings always appeared under the name "Alan Bullock".
In May 1976, Bullock was awarded an honorary degree from the Open University as Doctor of the University.
- ^ "Alan Louis Charles Bullock biography - British historian". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 21 May 2015.
- ^ Lough, David (2015). No More Champagne: Churchill and His Money. New York: Picador. p. 285.
- ^ Levens, R.G.C., ed. (1964). Merton College Register 1900–1964. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. p. 289.
- ^ Europa Publications (2003). The International Who's Who: 2004. Psychology Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-1-85743-217-6.
- ^ "St Catherine's Society". british-history.ac.uk. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
- ^ "Previous Vice-Chancellors". University of Oxford, UK. Retrieved 13 July 2011.
- ^ a b Frankland, Mark. Lord Bullock of Leafield, The Guardian. 3 February 2004.
- ^ a b https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1129&dat=20040205&id=4XIxAAAAIBAJ&sjid=kHADAAAAIBAJ&pg=6679,3413064
- ^ John Campbell, 'The lesson of two evils', The Times Saturday Review (22 June 1991), p. 21.
- ^ Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (1991) p 976
- ^ Keith G. Robbins (1996). A Bibliography of British History: 1914-1989. Oxford University Press. p. 31. ISBN 978-0-19-822496-9.
- ^ Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967.
- ^ R. C. S. Trahair (1994). From Aristotelian to Reaganomics: A Dictionary of Eponyms With Biographies in the Social Sciences. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 93. ISBN 978-0-313-27961-4.
- ^ Video on YouTube
- ^ Alan Bullock, Hitler and Stalin: Parallel Lives (London: HarperCollins, 1991; New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1991; second revised edition, New York: Vintage Books, 1993.
- ^ Nachmani, p. 783.
- ^ "No. 46815". The London Gazette. 3 February 1976. p. 1679.
- ^ "Honorary Graduate Cumulative List" (PDF). Open University. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014.