The First Battle of Ürümqi (Chinese: 第一次迪化之戰) was a conflict in the spring of 1933 between the armies of the Xinjiang provincial government and the Chinese Muslim 36th Division (National Revolutionary Army) of the national government of China. The Chinese government secretly urged Gen. Ma Zhongying to attack Jin Shuren while at the same time assuring Jin that he was recognized as the legitimate Governor. Fierce fighting broke out at the gates of the city, and one of the Chinese commanders torched a street where the Muslims troops had managed to break through at the West Gate, killing everyone in the vicinity, including refugees. The Muslims were then forced to retreat into the range of machine gun fire, which killed many of them.
A White Russian force of 1,800 troops under Col. Pappengut subsequently fought off the Muslim soldiers. Wu Aichen was told at least 2,000 had died by that point. The Muslims attempted to scale the walls at the Great West Bridge, and several were killed. The city was relieved when the provincial forces of Gov. Sheng Shicai approached and the Muslim troops fled. Approximately 6,000 Chinese and Muslim soldiers died in the fighting.