This article needs additional citations for verification
. (March 2021)
Tuapse (Russian: Туапсе)|
Black Sea Shipping Company|
|Port of registry:||
Odessa, Soviet Union|
Burmeister & Wain, Copenhagen, Denmark|
Captured by ROC Navy in 1954|
|Republic of China
ROCS Kuaiji 306 (會稽)|
23 Jun. 1954|
20 Oct. 1955|
1 Oct. 1965|
|General characteristics |
|Class and type:||
Apsheron-class, Oil tanker|
18,000 t (17,716 long tons)|
149.14 m (489 ft 4 in)|
19.16 m (62 ft 10 in)|
8.36 m (27.4 ft)|
6DKR 74/160, 5,530 shp (4,120 kW)|
14.5 knots (16.7 mph; 26.9 km/h)|
7 knots (8.1 mph; 13 km/h)|
Max. 13,200 DWT|
The Capture of Tanker Tuapse is the incident of a civilian vessel of Soviet Union being captured and confiscated by the Republic of China Navy in the high sea on 23 June 1954, whereas the sailors were detained for various time frames during the Martial Law period till the final release in 1988.
On 18 June 1949 during the Chinese Civil War, the Government of the Republic of China (ROC) announced the Closed Port Policy to establish an actual aerial and naval blockade on the territorial waters along the Chinese coast from Liao River to Min River area,  which was extended to include the Guangdong on 12 February 1950. The Executive Yuan declared an emergency measure on domestic vessels, crews and owner companies to strengthen the traffic ban on China on 16 August 1950, however the Kuomintang government extended the privateering on the foreign vessels regardless even in the international waters.
New York Times reported that 67 foreign civilian ships were intercepted between September 1949 and October 1954, as half of them were British vessels - 141 interference incidents as per the Royal Navy escort reports. The Western Enterprise Incorporated (WEI) supported by the Central Intelligence Agency acted a strategic role in the operations.
On 13 February 1951, a fleet of 3 ROCS destroyers under the direct order of ROC President Chiang Kai-shek captured the Norwegian civilian cargo ship Hoi Houw at 24°13'N 123°18'E within the Japanese territory of Yaeyama Islands. On 17-19, February, British mercantile Nigelock (former HMS Nigella K19, Flower-class corvette) full of fruits and vegetables, and another freighter Josephine Moller were attacked by ROC Anti-Communist National Salvation Army (ACNSA) gunboats near Chekiang coast in the East China Sea, but both escaped. On 15 April 1951, the Panamanian civilian cargo ship Perico was captured by ROC Navy at 25°31'N 123°48'E, north of the Taketomi Island.
East Asian piracy activities intensified in the summer 1953 after Joseph Stalin's death and the Korean Armistice Agreement: On 26 July, the British freighter Inchkilda (former SS Fort Wilhelmus N3-S-A2) was attacked by 3 ROC-ACNSA gunboats south of the Wuqiu region, and rescued by HMS Unicorn (I72) light aircraft carrier after the distress call; then being intercepted by ROC Navy again on 24, October 1954, but received the UK and US diplomatic supports. On 16 August 1953, Nigelock was captured by ROC Navy to the Magong military port in Penghu but was rescued by HMS St Brides Bay (K600) frigate; then was intercepted again by ROCS Huangpu PC-105 (PC-461-class submarine chaser) and was rescued by HMS Cockade (R34) destroyer on 24 August. Italian civilian freighter Maribu was also attacked by gunbots on 31 July 1953, and Danish civilian freighter Heinrich Jessen on 9 August - both were hijacked to Kinmen then confiscated in Keelung. At 18:00, 4 October, 2 ROCS destroyers captured the Polish civilian oil tanker Praca with 9,019 tons of content at 21°06'N 122°48'E in the West Pacific Ocean, 125 sea miles southeast of Taiwan. 29 Polish sailors and 17 Chinese sailors were transferred to the military detention center in Zuoying.
In early April, 1954, ROC Air Force and Navy conducted the carpet search for the Czech civilian cargo ship Julius Fueik, but failed to catch it in the Yaeyama sea area of the Pacific Ocean. At 14:20, 12 May, another Polish civilian cargo ship Prezydent Gottwald with 7,066 tons of lathes and medicines was bombarded by a fleet of 3 ROCS destroyers, at 20°30'N, 128°07'E, east of Batanes Islands and south of Okinawa Island, then was bombarded again at 15:20 to be captured at 23°45'N 128°35'E. 33 Polish sailors and 12 Chinese sailors were first detained in Keelung, then transferred to Zuoying together.
Tanker Praca was renamed as ROCS Helan (AOG-305, 賀蘭) and Transport Prezydent Gottwald was renamed as ROCS Tianzhu (AK-313, 天竺) to be included in the ROC Navy service. All 62 Polish sailors were released through Polish and United States diplomatic intervention, while 29 Chinese sailors were imprisoned in the Green Island Prison till 11 being rescued by the International Committee of the Red Cross in 1956, 3 staff being executed, 1 died in prison; eventually 5 of the survivors were released to return China after the Martial Law lifted in 1987, 5 died in sickness and accidents, and 4 stayed in Taiwan afterwards.
On 21 June 1954, the civilian tanker Tuapse with 49 Russian crew members, which started from Odessa and loaded over ten thousand tons of kerosene from Constanța in the Black Sea to Shanghai and Vladivostok, arrived in the Victoria Harbour of British Hong Kong to resupply. On 23 June upon passing through the international seaway of Balintang Channel in Bashi Straits eastbound toward the west Pacific Ocean. It was intercepted at 19°35′00″N 120°39′00″E / 19.58333°N 120.65000°ECoordinates: 19°35′00″N 120°39′00″E / 19.58333°N 120.65000°E near Philippines by the ROC fleet led by the Commander of ROC Navy, Admiral Ma Ji-zhuang (馬紀壯上將) in charge on board of the Flagship Tan Yang DD-12 (acquired former Japanese Imperial Navy Yukikaze after WWII), with the approval of President Chiang Kai-shek to attack to sink the target if encountering resistance. 3 shells of 127 mm naval DP gun were fired near the bow to halt Tuapse, then an assault team led by Captain Chiu Zhong-ming (邱仲明上校, who also led the Gottwald Assault before) with over 100 seamen and marines boarded to took the ship by force. 3 sailors trying to save the ripped-off national flag were struck down by rifle butts. The ship with content was towed to the Port of Kaohsiung for further intelligence examination; and the crew including the only female bartender Olga Popov, were divided in 3 groups roughly by age to different locations for political warfare interrogation.
Tuapse's final distress signal before the radio station being silenced and damaged was transmitted through Vladivostok to Moscow and Odessa. Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs of USSR, V.A. Zorin, summoned the Ambassador of USA, Charles Bowley in Moscow on 24 June 1954 to deliver the strong protestation memorandum; the ROC Government admitted the operation on 25 June. The Black Sea Shipping Company continued to distribute the victims' wages to their families throughout the following years.
Both Polish and Russian representatives to the United Nations denounced the conduct as piracy in the General Assembly, but the appeal to the International Court of Justice did not succeed. The Soviet task force of a destroyer and a frigate arrived offshore of Keelung Naval Base in early July, and the governments of Australia and New Zealand also expressed the concerns on ROC's actions providing USSR the pretext to strengthen naval forces' presence in the western Pacific Ocean. US Ambassador Karl L. Rankin in Taipei officially urged the release of ship and crew on 9 July, and visited the ROC Minister of Foreign Affairs, George Yeh in sick leave at home over night; Head of the Office of Chinese Affairs in USDOS, Walter P. McConaughy also discussed with ROC Ambassador Wellington Koo on 16 July, but none of them could change Chiang's mind. Particularly Chiang Ching-kuo as the Director of Political Warfare Bureau, attempted to acquire the sailors statements demanding the political asylum to produce the heroic Anti-Communist images for the psychological warfare effect in the Cold War; The First Lady, Soong Mei-ling led the representatives of Chinese Anti-Communist Women's League (中華婦女反共抗俄聯合會) to the persuasion visit; then bar visits and ladies were also offered along with videotaping for the propaganda purpose.
A declassified CIA briefing to the White House and United States National Security Council on 13 July revealed that the shipping insurance premium crossing the South China Sea had increased from 1% to 5% since 24 June after the Tuapse Incident, and certain international liners had been deterred midway at the Singapore Port unable to continue, or had to change plans. The PLA Air Force moved in the Hainan Island for the first time in history to secure another transport route through Yulin and Huangpu ports, but accidentally shot down a Douglas DC-4 (VR-HEU) airliner of the Cathay Pacific Airways with 10 death on 23 July. Two US aircraft carriers, USS Philippine Sea (CV-47) and USS Hornet (CV-12) arrived for a rescue mission on 26 July and shot down 2 PLAAF Lavochkin La-11 fighters east of Dazhou Island. On 2 August, Commander of PLA in CMC, Peng Dehuai convened the executive meeting to establish the tactical command for the East China Military Region as per Mao Zedong's directive to open another front.
The First Taiwan Strait Crisis started on 3 September 1954. On 8 September, the crew were informed the order of Chief of the General Staff, General Peng Meng-ji (彭孟緝上將, aka. "Kaoshiung Butcher" due to his brutality against civilians during the Feb. 28 Massacre and White Terror era) declaring that: "The Third World War has begun - the tanker and cargo have been confiscated, and the crew shall be considered as the prisoners of war." then they were mistreated with beating, starving rations and various tortures causing the hearing, vision, teeth and finger damages. Sailor L. Anfilov has no tooth left; N. Voronov tried to escape, but was seized and placed in a psychiatric facility with imitated execution; Engineer Ivan Pavlenko slashed his own throat with a blade to commit suicide, but did not die. 20 young Ukrainian, Russian and Moldovan sailors under the pressure signed the application for political asylum to the United States.
Tanker "Tuapse" was re-named as ROCS Kuaiji (AOG-306, 會稽) to be included in the ROC Navy task with 22 commissioned officers and 88 enlisted rank seamen on 20 October 1955 to deliver the aviation fuel for ROCAF alongshore monthly. Taiwan Navigation Co., Ltd. tried to acquire this ship in 1960, but was declined subsequently due to her nature being a registered stolen vessel with the valid global legal claim to the IMO/IMB, hence could not enter the territorial waters of a third UN country, but stayed idle often in dock. She retired on 1 October 1965, and lay down permanently in the Kaohsiung Harbor.
The Campaign of Yijiangshan sounded on 18 January 1955, followed by the Retreat of Dachen till 26 February, Kuomintang had lost the control on the East China Sea. US Secretary of State John F. Dulles arrived in Taiwan to meet President Chiang Kai-shek on 3 March as the Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty came into force to secure the Taiwan Strait, and tried to persuade him to release the ship and the crew but Chiang still disagreed. The Soviet Government demanded the French Government to mediate the fate of the Tuapse crew. Another request was also made through the Swedish Red Cross. As a result of joint efforts, 29 crew members who did not sign the asylum application were released, including Captain Vitaly A. Kalinin. They arrived in Moscow by plane on July 30. Next day (31 July), People's Republic of China (PRC) returned 11 American servicemen on the USAF B-29 bomber, which was shot down above the Yalu River area in North Korea on 12 January 1953. One day later on 1 August, PRC ambassador to Poland, Wang Bingnan met US ambassador to Czechoslovakia, U. Alexis Johnson in Geneva, Switzerland to establish the first direct communication channel in history later known as the "Warsaw Talks" for diplomatic normalization, which Chiang strongly opposed.
Chief telegraphist Michael Ivankov-Nikolov, accountant Nikolay I. Vaganov, Valentin A. Lukashkov, Viktor M. Ryabenko, Alexander P. Shirin, Mikhail I. Shishin, Viktor S. Tatarnikov, Venedikt P. Eremenko and Viktor Solovyov left for the United States in October 1955; but in April 1956, Vaganov, Lukashkov, Ryabenko, Shirin and Shishin appeared at the Soviet Embassy and returned to the USSR. Vaganov was arrested in 1963 and sentenced by the Gorky Regional Court to 10 years in prison for treason. He served 7 years and was pardoned in 1970. In August 1992, the Presidium of the Nizhny Novgorod Regional Court recognized Vaganov as reasonably convicted, he was rehabilitated by the decision of the Supreme Court of the Russian Federation eventually. Eremenko and Tatarnikov joined the US Army. Solovyov settled in New York. In 1959, the Odessa Regional Court sentenced in absentia the sailors who never returned USSR - Tatarnikov, Ivankov-Nikolov, Eremenko and Solovyov - to death for treason. After appearing in anti-Soviet speeches in Washington, D.C., Ivankov-Nikolov lost his mind and was handed over to the Soviet Embassy returning USSR in 1959; then was declared non-judicial due to mental illness and placed in a psychiatric hospital in Kazan, where he spent over 20 years.
Sailor L. F. Anfilov, Vladimir I. Benkovich, Pavel V. Gvozdik and N. V. Zibrov accepted an intelligence assignment to leave for Brazil with Polish passports by the end of 1957, then appeared at the Soviet Consulate in Uruguay to return USSR next year. However they were arrested after a press conference and sentenced to 15 years in prison for treason. Later they were reduced to 12 years, and further released with a pardon in 1963. They were rehabilitated in 1990.
Sailor Valentin I. Kniga, Vsevolod V. Lopatyuk, Vladimir A. Sablin and Boris Pisanov were sentenced to 10 years in prison in Taiwan by the trial in absentia of the ROC Court-martial as per the Martial Law. They spent 7 years in prison before being placed under the guarded house arrest in various quarters till lastly to the Yilan suburb, where a ROC Foreign Ministry official spoke on condition of anonymity that they requested political asylum in Taiwan and were treated as refugees. In 1970, Soviet journalist Victor Louis held several meetings with the Minister of ROC Government Information Office, James Wei in Vienna to achieve the agreement of releasing all the remaining crew members in ROC military custody, but this agreement was never realized, until when the reportage of «Independence Evening Post» and the aboriginal parliament member Tsai Chung-han advocated for their human rights after the Taiwan democratic reform with the Martial Law lifted in 1987.
With the new amnesty policy on all political prisoners from the first Taiwanese President Lee Teng-hui in 1988, they were finally free to leave with the assistance of the Soviet Consul in Singapore, A. I. Tkachenko, to go home after 34 years of captivity. The last crew cook Lopatyuk returned Ukraine in 1993 after a stroke.
Sailor Zhorka M. Dimov suffered from the continual beating and bleeding without medical care, then committed suicide in 1975; Mikhail M. Kalmazan died in sickness afterwards; Anatoly V. Kovalev died in a psychiatric facility. Their cadavers were not returned.
Over 100 years after its establishment in 1911, the Republic of China still doesn't have the Refugee Law today, yet the government has never rendered an apology nor legal compensation to the victim families or the victim countries.
The communication barriers against the Tuapse crew exposed the insufficiency of interpreters and translators in need, so Major-general Pu Dao-ming (卜道明少將), who was processing the case, reported for permission to found the first Russian language course in Taiwanese history for the Foreign Language School of MND in 1957, later extended into civilian societies on the East European cultural and linguistic education such as in the academies of NCCU, CCU, TKU and FHK today. Pu died in a surgery, before re-appealing to Chiang for the crew's release, on 24 May 1964.
The story of Tuapse was produced in the film "Ч. П. — Чрезвычайное происшествие" (E.A. — Extraordinary Accident) in 2 parts in 1958, directed by Viktor Ivchenko, and became the leading film distribution with 47.5 million viewers in USSR in 1959.
The ROC naval traffic blockade status ended on 12 September 1979; and the detention, confiscation and criminal penalty regulation on the transportation vessels, crews and maritime companies to China remained valid till being abolished on 15 January 1992.
In 1996, the Russian Government awarded a medal to each of the Tuapse survivors who were still alive.
The Central Naval Museum in Saint Petersburg preserves a model of Tanker Tuapse.
In 2005, A marble plaque in memory of Tuapse and her crew was planted in front of the passenger terminal building of the Odessa Port in Ukraine, where her last journey with no return started 50 years ago.
- ^ Lin Hong-yi (2009). "Chapter 1" (PDF). <封鎖大陸沿海──中華民國政府的「關閉政策」, 1949-1960> (M.D. thesis) (in Chinese). National Chengchi University.
- ^ "Taiwanese Society Under Martial Law Remembered". Taipei Times. 2007-07-15. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- ^ Executive Yuan Decree (1949-06-18). "38 穗五 No. 4896" (in Chinese). Guangzhou: 5th Directorate of the President Office.
- ^ a b National Archives Administration, National Development Council (2009-01-08). "封鎖共區" (in Chinese). Archival Resources for Teaching.
- ^ a b Executive Yuan Decree (1950-08-16). "投匪資匪之輪船公司及船隻緊急處置辦法" (in Chinese). ROC Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
- ^ a b Li Zhen-hsiang (2009-01-08). "反共抗俄大暴走：1954年陶甫斯號劫船事件" (in Chinese). Taiwan People News.
- ^ a b c 蔡佳妘 (2019-02-14). "蔣介石是國際公認海賊王！派軍艦洗劫貨船，連英國、蘇聯都敢惹…揭台灣「海盜王國」黑歷史" (in Chinese). The Storm Media Group.
- ^ John W. Garver (1997-04-30). The Sino-American Alliance, Nationalist China and American Cold war Strategy in Asia. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe, Inc. ISBN 9780765600530.
- ^ Robert Accinelli (1996-01-23). Crisis and Commitment: United States Policy toward Taiwan, 1950-1955. The Journal of American History. ISBN 0807822590.
- ^ Frank Holober (1999-09-01). Raiders of the China Coast: CIA Covert Operations during the Korean War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1557503885.
- ^ a b c d e f Lin Hong-yi (2009). "Chapter 4，1953-1960" (PDF). 《封鎖大陸沿海──中華民國政府的「關閉政策」，1949-1960》 (M.D. thesis) (in Chinese). National Chengchi University.
- ^ Reuters (1951-02-20). "Pirates Off China Coast - Second Attack". Sydney Morning Herald. Hong Kong: Trove.
- ^ Hobbs, David, Commander (2007). Moving Bases: Royal Navy Maintenance Carriers and MONABs. Liskeard, Cornwall, UK: Maritime Books. ISBN 978-1-904459-30-9.
- ^ S. Swiggum (1999). "Royal Parcel Shipping Company 1888-1967". TheShipsList.
- ^ MS. O. Davies (1954-10-25). "British Merchant Ship (Chinese Detention) Volume 531". UK Parliament Hansard.
- ^ Henry B. Lieberman (1953-08-25). "Blockade runner rescued off China; Warning Shot From British Destroyer Routs Nationalist Gunboat Chasing Freighter". The New York Times. New York City.
- ^ "China: Shot Across the Bow". New York City: Time. 1953-09-07.
- ^ "Kleinkrieg im Chinesischen Meer" (in German). Hamburg, Germany: Zeit Online, GmbH. 1953-09-03. Retrieved 2016-05-27.
- ^ a b c Li Zhen-hsiang (2009-01-08). "Praca" (in Chinese). Taiwan News Weekly, ver. 376, Taiwan Association for Truth and Reconciliation.
- ^ a b "邱仲明 海軍少將" (in Chinese). Taipei: Taiwan Flora 12.
- ^ "Kuomintang warships that blocked the Mainland and intercepted Polish & Soviet ships" (in Chinese). Beijing: Global Times. 2005-12-23.
- ^ Jin Zhongming (2013-08-28). "Chapter 11 (Excerpt ), Shanghai yuan yang yun shu zhi" (in Chinese). Shanghai Academy of Social Sciences Publication.
- ^ "The 1954 Incident of Taiwan Hijacking the Soviet Tanker-Taupps" (in Chinese). 壹讀. 2017-07-23.
- ^ a b c d e f g Red Square 123 (2017-06-18). "蘇聯油輪圖阿普斯號：1954被中國國民黨劫持至台灣的真實事件解秘" (in Chinese).
- ^ a b c d e f Oleg Bulovich. "Танкер "Туапсе", или возвращение из тайваньского плена" (in Russian). Odessa, Ukraine: Odesskiy.
- ^ a b c d Andrey Maximov (2020-08-18). "Provocation - In 1954, the Taiwanese Navy captured the Soviet tanker "Tuapse"" (in Russian). Versia.
- ^ a b c d Sergey Turchenko (2001-03-22). "РОКОВОЙ РЕЙС ТАНКЕРА "ТУАПСЕ"" (in Russian). TRUD.
- ^ "Formosa: Troubled Waters". New York City: TIME. 1954-07-05.
- ^ Valery Burt (2004-09-21). "The tragedy of the tanker "Tuapse" - 65 years ago, Chiang Kai-shek hijacked a Soviet ship" (in Russian). Information and Analytical Publication of the Historical Perspective Foundation.
- ^ a b c Gao Jing (2019-05-19). "美國曾幕後指使台灣當海盜" (in Chinese). Taipei: The Observer.
- ^ a b c d e Lev Kaplin. "The tragedy of the tanker "Tuapse"" (in Russian). Riddles of History.
- ^ a b c d Wu Fucheng (2018-01-23). "The Early Taiwan-Russian relations you may not know" (in Chinese). European Union Forum, Tamkang University.
- ^ a b c d Lu Ming-an (2009-01-08). "蔣介石的劫船事件與蘇聯電影《非常事件》真相" (in Chinese). Chinese University of Hong Kong中國研究服務中心.
- ^ Wu Wei (2009-05-19). "前"西方公司"成員披露:美中情局助台反攻大陸內情(2)" (in Chinese). China News.
- ^ Roy A. Grossnick (1997). United States Naval Aviation, 1910-1995. Naval Historical Center, Department of the Navy. ISBN 978-0-16-049124-5. Archived from the original on 2020-09-14. Retrieved 2020-09-14.
- ^ Lang Yang (2000-03-09). "On the edge of war: A strategy review on the Kinmen Bombardment (1)" (in Chinese). Warship Information.
- ^ The Cold War Museum (2011-05-07). "First Taiwan Strait Crisis Quemoy and Matsu Islands". Global Security.
- ^ Chen Ching-chuan (2011-03-01). "The Study of Kaohsiung City as the Core Human Rights City in East Asia" (in Chinese). Law Bank, Journal of Urbanology, Vol 2, Issue 1.
- ^ Li Hsiao-feng (2009-02-28). "Interpretation of February 28 Incident (Excerpt ver.)" (PDF) (in Chinese). Cultural And Educational Foundation, Taiwan.
- ^ P. M. Ivanov (1996-01-01). Russian-Taiwanese relations: Current state, problems, and prospects of development. School of Law, University of Maryland. ISBN 0925153451.
- ^ Han Cheung (2020-01-12). "Taiwan in Time: Yijiangshan: Moving the Americans to action?". Taipei Times.
- ^ Rushkoff, Bennett C. "Eisenhower, Dulles and the Quemoy-Matsu Crisis, 1954-1955." Political Science Quarterly 96, no. 3 (1981): 469-72. 
- ^ "Avalon Project - Mutual Defense Treaty Between the United States and the Republic of China; December 2, 1954". New Haven, CT: Lillian Goldman Law Library, Yale Law School. Archived from the original on 2012-03-10. Retrieved 2017-07-14.
- ^ Prof. Victor D. Cha (2010-01-01). "Powerplay: Origins of the U.S. Alliance in Asia". International Security. President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 34 (3 (Winter 2009/10)). doi:10.1162/isec.2010.34.3.158. S2CID 57566528.
- ^ V. Ts. Golovachev (2019). "Capture of the Soviet Tanker "Tuapse": A Hostage Swap Endgame (Comparative Analysis of the Events and the True Causes of the Incident)". Sravnitelʹnai͡a Politika (in Russian). Moscow: Comparative Politics Journal, MGIMO-University. ISSN 2412-4990.
- ^ Steven M. Goldstein, "Dialogue of the Deaf?: The Sino-American Ambassadorial-Level Talks, 1955–1970." in Robert S. Ross; Changbin Jiang (2001). Re-examining the Cold War: U.S.-China Diplomacy, 1954–1973. Harvard Univ Asia Center. ISBN 9780674005266.
- ^ "Sino-U.S. Ambassadorial Talks". Beijing: Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China.
- ^ a b Dr. Okorokov A. Vasilievich (2019-05-21). "CAPTURE OF THE TANKER "TUAPSE", 1954" (in Russian). WikiReading.
- ^ United States Department of Justice Immigration and Naturalization Service (1959-03-02). "Declassified Report No. 69 to the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 86th Congress, 1st Session, Calendar No. 65" (PDF). National Archives.
- ^ Evgeny Zhirnov (2013-10-28). ""The defendants gave everyone to the Chiang Kai-shekists" - How the Soviet special services unwittingly helped the Taiwanese" (in Russian). Kommersant Vlast.
- ^ Gluck, Caroline (2007-07-03). "Remembering Taiwan's martial law". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-09-20.
- ^ "Sailors Say They Spent 34 Years in Taiwan Prison". Moscow: Associated Press News. 1988-08-19.
- ^ "Soviet Sailor Says He Likes Taiwan". Taipei: Associated Press News. 1988-11-02.
- ^ Yu Ke-jie (2000). The Secret Contact Between Taiwan and the Soviet Union during the Cold War. 《Wang Ping Dossier》 (in Chinese). Shuku Net.
- ^ "Taiwan Ends 4 Decades of Martial Law". The New York Times. Associated Press. 1987-07-15. Retrieved 2011-10-08.
- ^ a b c Andrey Slyusarenko (2009-11-11). "Floating for half a life" (in Russian). Odessa Life.
- ^ P. Ivanushkina (2016-06-16). "Long way out of the Taiwanese pit. The wife was waiting for him from captivity for 39 years" (in Russian). Peoples.
- ^ Chiu Yi-ling, Wang Hsi (2019-03-21). "The Plight of Syrian Kurds on Taiwan Island". News Center, Public Television Service. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
- ^ Vitali Kalinin (1958). "Ch. P. - Chrezvychainoe proisshestvie". IMDb.
- ^ Victor Ivchenko (2021-02-21). "ЧП – Чрезвычайное происшествие (1 серия) (1958) фильм" (in Russian).
- ^ 臺灣省政府公報五十二年秋字第三十三期 (1963-06-07). "戡亂時期截斷匪區海上交通辦法" (in Chinese). National Central Library Gazette Online.
- ^ Prof. Sergey Vradiy (2020-02-20). ""Tuapse" Oil Tanker Episode in the History of Taiwan-Russia Relations" (PDF). Taiwan Fellowship, Center for Chinese Studies, National Central Library.