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. (September 2014)
The Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) (Partito Comunista d'Italia (marxista-leninista), PCd'I (m-l)) was a political party in Italy. It was at one time Italy's largest Maoist group, until it changed affiliation and sided with Albania.
The party was founded in 1963 as the Italian Marxist–Leninist Movement. It was renamed Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) in 1966. Its founders were from a group of Marxist–Leninist communists, who abandoned the Italian Communist Party led by Luigi Longo for its "revisionist" political line. The founders of the Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) criticized and accused the PCI of "revisionism" (because the executives of Italian Communist Party accepted the thesis of Khrushchev that denigrated Stalin in the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union) and to follow a parliamentarist and reformist political line. The secretary of the Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) was Fosco Dinucci. Only persons who showed to know the thought of Marx, Engels, Lenin, Stalin and Mao and who actively devoted themselves to the cause of the Proletarian Revolution, could join the party.
The Communist Party of Italy (Marxist–Leninist) declared its opposition to the parliamentary bourgeois democracy. For the revolutionary activists of the PCd'I (m-l), the only way was the revolution, the dictatorship of the proletariat, to realize also in Italy the communism through the nationalization of the means of production and of exchange, the economy of state planned.
In 1968, when the ideological clash between the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the Communist Party of China was to the peak, the PCd'I (m-l) was recognized as Italian reference by the PCC and by the Party of Labour of Albania. Such recognition became official in August 1968. Osvaldo Pesce and Dino Dini went in delegation to Peking and met Mao and other important Chinese executives. The meeting was immortalized in a photo published by the newspaper Nuova Unità, in which the two Italian representatives were seen together with the Chinese executives.
In 1969 a radical faction (led by Giovanni Scuderi) broke away from the party and founded the Italian Marxist-Leninist Party.
In 1977, after the Sino-Albanian split, the party sided with Albania.
The party published a daily newspaper called Nuova Unità (New Unity) and a weekly called Voice della Cella (Voice from the Cell).
In 1991, the PCd'I (m-l) joined Communist Refoundation Party.