The Crimean Oblast (Ukrainian: Кримська область, romanized: Krymsjka oblastj; Russian: Крымская область, romanized: Krymskaja oblastj; Crimean Tatar: Qırım vilâyeti / Къырым виляйети) was an oblast (province) of the former Russian SFSR (1945–1954) and Ukrainian SSR (1954–1991) within the Soviet Union. Its capital was the city of Simferopol.
The Crimean Oblast replaced the Crimean ASSR on 30 June 1945.
The oblast was transferred from the Russian SFSR to the Ukrainian SSR on 19 February 1954.
Sevastopol was a closed city due to its importance as the port of the Soviet Black Sea Fleet and was attached to the Crimean Oblast only in 1978.
Following a referendum held on 20 January 1991, the Crimean Oblast was given back its pre-World War II status of Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic on 12 February 1991, by the Supreme Soviet of the Ukrainian SSR.
With effect from 6 May 1992, the Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was transformed into the Republic of Crimea within Ukraine. 21 September 1994 it was renamed to Autonomous Republic of Crimea by Verkhovna Rada. This name was used for Crimea (with the exception of the city of Sevastopol) in new Ukrainian Constitution of 1996. The status of Sevastopol, due to its strategic importance as the port of the Russian Black Sea Fleet, remained disputed between Ukraine and Russia until 1997 when it was agreed that it should be treated as a "city with special status" within Ukraine.
In 2014, Crimea and Sevastopol were annexed by the Russian Federation amid pro-Russian unrest in various regions of Ukraine, although Ukraine, along with most of the international community, still considers Crimea and Sevastopol to be Ukrainian territory.