Novak at the 30th International Congress on Law and Mental Health, 2007
|Born||August 19th, 1941|
|Occupation||Jewish theologian and Judaic studies professor|
|Covenantal Rights: A Study in Jewish Political Theory (Princeton University Press, 2000)|
Dabru Emet (2000)
|Main interests||Ethics, biomedical ethics, Jewish theology, Jewish ethics, natural law, political theory, Jewish-Christian relations|
David Novak, FRSC (born August 19th, 1941 in Chicago, Illinois) is a Jewish theologian, ethicist, and scholar of Jewish philosophy and law (Halakha). He is an ordained Conservative rabbi and holds the J. Richard and Dorothy Shiff Chair of Jewish Studies as Professor of the Study of Religion and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Toronto since 1997. His areas of interest are Jewish theology, Jewish ethics and biomedical ethics, political theory (with a special emphasis on natural law), and Jewish-Christian relations.
Novak has authored 16 books and more than 200 articles in scholarly journals. His book Covenantal Rights: A Study in Jewish Political Theory (Princeton University Press, 2000) won the American Academy of Religion Award for "best book in constructive religious thought" in 2000. He is a regular contributor to the ABC News' Religion and Ethics portal. He frequently addresses interfaith conferences and contributes to books and journals published by Christian theologians.
Early life and education
Novak was born in 1941 in Chicago, Illinois. He received his bachelor's degree from the University of Chicago in 1961 and his master's degree in Hebrew literature in 1964. He earned his Ph.D in philosophy at Georgetown University in 1971. (Later he remarked that he chose Georgetown in part because it was a Catholic university). He received rabbinical ordination in 1966 from the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, where he studied under Abraham Joshua Heschel. He is married to Melva Ziman since 1963; they have two children and five grandchildren.
Novak was a pulpit rabbi in several American Jewish communities from 1966 to 1989. He also served as a Jewish chaplain at St. Elizabeth's Hospital, National Institute of Mental Health, Washington, D.C., from 1966 to 1969.
In 1989 he moved to the University of Virginia as Edgar M. Bronfman Professor of Modern Judaic Studies, a position he held until 1997. Since 1997 he has held the J. Richard and Dorothy Shiff Chair of Jewish Studies as Professor of the Study of Religion and Professor of Philosophy at the University of Toronto. He is also a member of the Joint Centre for Bioethics. From 1997 to 2002 he also directed the Jewish Studies Programme.
In 1992–1993 he was a Fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Washington, D.C. He also lectured at Oxford University, Lancaster University and Drew University, and was a visiting scholar at Princeton University in 2004 and 2006.
Novak has contributed to Jewish ethics by advocating a Jewish social ethics drawn from both the natural law tradition and Halakha. To this end, he interprets the rabbinic approach to the Noahide laws as a useful grounding for cross-cultural moral reasoning. His expertise includes Maimonides, John Courtney Murray, and Paul Tillich. In his theology, he combines Jewish rabbinical tradition and logic with Christian teachings.
Novak, together with Peter Ochs, Tikva Frymer-Kensky, and Michael Signer, drafted a full-page advertisement which appeared in the Sunday, 10 September 2000 edition of The New York Times under the title "Dabru Emet (Speak Truth): A Jewish statement on Christians and Christianity". Among the eight theological statements which the advertisement briefly laid out were: "Nazism is not a Christian phenomenon"; "Humanly irreconcilable differences between Jews and Christians will not be settled until God redeems the entire world as promised in Scripture"; and the statement which generated the most controversy in Jewish circles, "Jews and Christians worship the same God". The advertisement was signed by 160 rabbis, including many leading Reform, Reconstructionist and Conservative thinkers and a handful of Orthodox rabbis known for their interfaith work. Explaining his rationale for publishing the document, Novak told Jweekly: "I want Jewish readers to clearly realize that Christians are not necessarily our enemies. Quite the contrary, they can be very good friends to Jews and Judaism". The document was subsequently translated into eight languages.
While some modern Jews are offended by the traditional Christian belief in supersessionism, Rabbi and Jewish theologian David Novak has stated that "Christian supersessionism need not denigrate Judaism. Christian supersessionism can still affirm that God has not annulled his everlasting covenant with the Jewish people, neither past nor present nor future."
Novak suggests that there are three degrees by which Christians can maintain respect for the covenant of the Jews mentioned in Jeremiah.
- The new covenant is an extension of the old covenant.
- The new covenant is an addition to the old covenant.
- The new covenant is a replacement for the old covenant.
He observes, "In the early Church, it seems, the new covenant presented by the Apostolic Writings (better known as diatheke ekaine or novum testamentum) was either taken to be an addition to the old covenant (the religion of the Torah and Jewish Pharisaic tradition), or it was taken to be a replacement for the old covenant."
Novak considers both understandings to be supersessionist. He designates the first as "soft supersessionism" and the second as "hard supersessionism." The former "does not assert that God terminated the covenant of Exodus-Sinai with the Jewish people. Rather, it asserts that Jesus came to fulfill the promise of the old covenant, first for those Jews already initiated into the covenant, who then accepted his messiahhood as that covenant's fulfillment. And, it asserts that Jesus came to both initiate and fulfill the promise of the covenant for those Gentiles whose sole connection to the covenant is through him. Hence, in this kind of supersessionism, those Jews who do not accept Jesus' messiahhood are still part of the covenant in the sense of 'what God has put together let no man put asunder' [emphasis original]." See also Dual-covenant theology.
Hard supersessionism, on the other hand, asserts that "[t]he old covenant is dead. The Jews by their sins, most prominently their sin of rejecting Jesus as the Messiah, have forfeited any covenantal status." The hard supersessionists base their views on the bible passages found in Matthew 21:42–46 and Romans 9:1–7. This classification provides mutually exclusive options. Hard supersessionism implies both punitive and economic supersessionism; soft supersessionism does not fall into any of the three classes recognized as supersessionist by Christian theologians; instead it is associated with Jewish Christianity.
He is a founder, vice-president, and coordinator of the Jewish Law Panel of the Union for Traditional Judaism, and a faculty member and vice-president of the Union for Traditional Judaism in Teaneck, New Jersey. He is a faculty member of the Department of Talmud and Halakha at the Canadian Yeshiva & Rabbinical School, Toronto. He also serves as a Visitor of Ralston College.
In the mid-1980s he was invited to join the Institute on Religion and Public Life by its founder, Richard John Neuhaus, and became a member of the editorial board of the institute's journal, First Things. He is also a member of the advisory board of The G.K. Chesterton Institute for Faith & Culture at Seton Hall University, South Orange, New Jersey.
In 2006 he was appointed as a board member of Assisted Human Reproduction Canada.
- Selected articles
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "David Novak". religion.utoronto.ca. University of Toronto – Department for the Study of Religion. 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.CS1 maint: date and year (link)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m "David Novak". philosophy.utoronto.ca. University of Toronto – Department of Philosophy. 2020. Retrieved 9 November 2020.
- ^ "Featured website – ABC Religion and Ethics portal". CathNews. 13 July 2010. Archived from the original on 26 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "International Catholic-Jewish Liaison Committee – 17th Meeting, April 30–May 4, 2001". Vatican. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ a b "2000 Annual CCJU Lecture: Rabbi David Novak". Sacred Heart University – Center for Christian-Jewish Understanding. 13 April 2000. Archived from the original on 4 June 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Trinity, Time, and Church: A Response to the Theology of Robert W. Jenson". BNet. 2010. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "The Catholic Intellectual Tradition: What is it? Why should I care? (note 8)". College of Saint Benedict – Saint John's University. 20 August 2003. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ a b c Pope, Jim (26 January 2006). "Healing a 2000-year-old rift". mercatornet. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Cooper, Noel (30 January 2008). "A Jewish Take on Sanctity of Life". Catholic Register. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Steinfels, Peter (23 September 2000). "Beliefs; Ten carefully worded paragraphs encourage Jews to consider a thoughtful response to changes in the relationship between Christianity and Judaism". The New York Times. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ Brownfeld, Allan (September–October 2000). "Jews Are Called Upon To Reassess Their Views of Christianity, Recognizing We Worship The Same God". American Council for Judaism. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ Nahshon, Gad. "After Years of Study: Historic Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity". Jewish Post of New York. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ "DABRU EMET: A Jewish Statement on Christians and Christianity". National Jewish Scholars Project. Archived from the original on 13 October 2012. Retrieved 18 May 2011.
- ^ Rubin, Neil (15 September 2000). "Rabbis, Scholars Publish 'Jewish view' of Christianity". Jweekly. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ Rabbi Dow Marmur, Lecture at Regis College, Toronto, January 21, 1998, see at  June 28, 2008
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-04-04. Retrieved 2015-03-12.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ a b c David Novak, 'The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought', in Eugene B. Korn (ed.), Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), pp. 65–80.
- ^ David Novak, 'The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought', in Eugene B. Korn (ed.), Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of the Other, (Rowman & Littlefield, 2004), pp. 66.
- ^ Novak. "The Covenant in Rabbinic Thought." "Two Faiths, One Covenant?: Jewish and Christian Identity in the Presence of ...." Ed. Eugene B. Korn and John Pawlikowski. Google Books. 27 June 2014.
- ^ "New Rabbis Ordained – ITJ Chag Hasemikhah (Semikhah Celebration)". Union for Traditional Judaism. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "What is the UTJ?". Union for Traditional Judaism. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Faculty, School of Hebrew Letters". Canadian Yeshiva & Rabbinical School. Archived from the original on 12 September 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ http://www.ralston.ac/
- ^ Novak, David (12 January 2009). "RJN & the Jews". National Review. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "About Us". First Things. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "The G.K. Chesterton Institute for Faith & Culture". Seton Hall University. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "The Sanctity of Human Life". Georgetown University Press. 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.
- ^ "Members of the Board of Directors". Assisted Human Reproduction Canada. 15 June 2010. Archived from the original on 11 June 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2011.