A junior at Eton
fagging, illustration by S. P. Hall
in C. F. Johnstone's Recollections of Eton
Fagging was a traditional practice in British public schools and also at many other boarding schools, whereby younger pupils were required to act as personal servants to the eldest boys. Although probably originating earlier, the first accounts of fagging appeared in the late 17th century.:23
Fagging sometimes involved physical abuse:23–25 and/or sexual abuse. Although lessening in severity over the centuries, the practice continued in some institutions until the end of the 20th century.:23–25
Fagging originated as a structure for maintaining order in boarding schools, when schoolmasters' authority was practically limited to the classroom. Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby from 1828 to 1841, defined fagging as the power given by the authorities of the school to the Sixth Form, to be exercised by them over younger boys. Fagging was a fully established system at St Paul's, Eton, and Winchester in the sixteenth century.
Fagging carried with it well-defined rights and duties on both sides. The senior, sometimes called the fag-master, was the protector of his fags and responsible for their happiness and good conduct. In case of any problem outside the classroom, such as bullying or injustice, a junior boy's recourse was to him, not to a form master or housemaster, and, except in the gravest cases, all incidents were dealt with by the fag-master on his own responsibility.
The duties undertaken by fags, the time taken, and their general treatment varied widely. Each school had its own traditions. Until around 1900 a fag's duties might include such humble tasks as blacking boots, brushing clothes and cooking breakfasts, and there was no limit as to hours. Later, fagging was restricted to such light tasks as running errands and bringing tea to the fag-master's study. At many schools, fag-masters were expected to reward their fags with a monetary 'fag tip' at the end of a semester. The 1911 Britannica details an evolution of the role at Eton. Under school rules, fagging might entail harsh discipline and corporal punishment when those were standard practices. In 2017, the actor Simon Williams described how, as a new pupil at Harrow School in 1959, he was required to fag for a prefect four years his senior, involving duties such as spit-shining his shoes, making his bed, serving tea, and even warming the toilet seat.
In 1930, an inquest into the death of a 14-year-old schoolboy from Sedbergh School heard that, rather than returning after holidays, he took his life because of his dislike of the fagging system. The jury returned a verdict of suicide and recommended the discontinuation of the practice in public schools.
During the late 20th century, fagging became unfashionable in British public schools, as attitudes to boarding education and child development changed. Despite the reluctance of senior boys who had served their time and expected to enjoy the benefits of the system, between the 1960s and 1980s first the duties became less onerous and then the system was abolished at most major public schools. The practice is believed to have become obsolete in Great Britain.
There is a history of fagging in schools in former British colonies such as India and South Africa, where fagging continues in a limited form at some schools.
Fagging was sometimes associated with sexual abuse.:215–244 Christopher Tyerman, writing about the history of Harrow School, stated that in some situations, fagging could either encourage or conceal sexual activity between boys, and that at Harrow, fagging began to decline at around the same time as homosexuality was eradicated as an acceptable part of the boarding school environment:477 but continued in formal school life until the 1990s.:440
In memoirs, literature and art
Many authors have written of the experience of the harsh regimes experienced within public or boarding schools; some in novels and others in memoirs.
- Percy Bysshe Shelley, who entered Eton College in 1804, was bullied for refusing to aid his assigned prefect.
- Fagging is depicted in the 1857 novel Tom Brown's School Days by Thomas Hughes, which is set at Rugby School.
- E. W. Hornung's stories about fictional gentleman thief A. J. Raffles (created in 1898) are narrated by Raffles's companion Bunny Manders, who fagged for Raffles in their school years.
- C. S. Lewis's partial autobiography, Surprised by Joy (1955), mentions fagging (see Chapter VI, pp. 94–95).
- Some characters in P. G. Wodehouse's school stories are fags, such as Reginald Robinson in The Pothunters (1902) and Thomas Renford in The Gold Bat (1904).
- In his 1984 autobiography, Roald Dahl states that when he was a young fag, he was instructed to warm toilet seats for older boys at Repton School, and he wrote a fictional account of the experience of fagging in his short story Galloping Foxley.
- Yana Toboso’s manga series, Black Butler, showcases the fagging system in its Public School Arc, with the main protagonist, Ciel Phantomhive, becoming a fag when he enrolls to investigate events at Weston College.
||Look up fag in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- ^ a b c d e f g h Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 125..
- ^ Brown, Tamara L.; Parks, Gregory; Phillips, Clarenda M. (2005). African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and the Vision. University Press of Kentucky. ISBN 978-0-8131-2344-8.
- ^ Report of Her Majesty's Commissioners Appointed to Inquire Into the Revenues and Management of Certain Colleges and Schools, and the Studies Pursued and Instruction Given Therein: With an Appendix and Evidence. London: G.E. Eyre and W. Spottiswoode. 1864. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ a b c d Schaverien, Joy (2015). Boarding School Syndrome: The psychological trauma of the 'privileged' child. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-50659-1. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ a b "When I was at school ..." The Guardian. 12 October 2005. Retrieved 26 May 2011.
- ^ Johnson's New Universal Cyclopædia: A Scientific and Popular Treasury of Useful Knowledge. A. J. Johnson. 1877. p. 7. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ Williams, Simon (8 December 2017). "The Archers' Simon Williams on public school 'fagging'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ Nash, Paul (1961). "Training an Elite: The prefect-fagging system in the English Public School". History of Education Quarterly. 1 (1): 14–21. doi:10.2307/367195. ISSN 0018-2680. JSTOR 367195. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- ^ "Suicide - Dislike of Fagging". The Times. 10 May 1930. p. 9. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- ^ UPI (4 March 1977). "Eton students want to carry on fagging tradition". Nashua Telegraph.
- ^ Barekat, Houman (29 June 2018). "Posh Boys by Robert Verkaik review – how public schools ruin Britain" – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ Agarwala, Vishant (31 August 2014). "Lights out, bullies are out". The Times of India. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- ^ Löser, Dylan Thomas (2016). "The Classics, the Cane and Rugby: The Life of Aubrey Samuel Langley and his Mission to Make Men in the High Schools of Natal, 1871-1939" (PDF). pp. 55, 63. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- ^ a b Tyerman, Christopher (October 2000). A History of Harrow School, 1324-1991. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-822796-0. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ Renton, Alex (8 April 2017). "School of hard knocks: the dark underside to boarding school books". The Guardian. Retrieved 22 August 2020.
- ^ Bieri, James (2004). Percy Bysshe Shelley: A Biography: Youth's Unextinguished Fire, 1792–1816. Newark: University of Delaware Press. p. 81. ISBN 9780874138702.
- ^ Brooke-Smith, James (2019). Gilded Youth: Privilege, Rebellion and the British Public School. Reaktion Books. pp. 36, 44. ISBN 9781789140927.
- ^ "Tom Brown's Schooldays, by Thomas Hughes". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 23 August 2020.
- ^ Hornung, E. W. (2003) . Richard Lancelyn Green (ed.). Raffles, the Amateur Cracksman (Annotated ed.). London: Penguin Books. p. 3. ISBN 978-1856132824.
- ^ Lewis, C.S. (1955). Surprised by Joy. Harcourt, Brace and World. ISBN 0-15-687011-8.
- ^ Garrison, Daniel H. (1989) . Who's Who in Wodehouse (Revised ed.). Peter Lang Publishing. pp. 162, 164. ISBN 1-55882-087-6.
- ^ Dahl, Roald (1984). Boy: Tales of Childhood. Puffin Books. ISBN 978-0-14-130305-5.