The Hawiye (Somali: Hawiye, Arabic: بنو هوية, Italian: Haouia, English: Hawiye) is a large Somali clan family. Members of this clan traditionally inhabit central and southern Somalia, the Somali Region and the North Eastern Province (currently administered by Ethiopia and Kenya, respectively). They are also the majority in the capital city, Mogadishu. The Fiqishini, a subclan of the Habar Gidir Hawiye, inhabit the Sool region of Somaliland.
Like many Somalis, Hawiye members trace their paternal ancestry to Irir, son of Samaale.
According to many documented sources and historians, the patriarch Samaale arrived in northern Somalia from Yemen during the 9th century and subsequently founded the eponymous Samaale clan. Two of the major clans the Hawiye and Dir trace descent from Irir the son of Samaale, who in turn traces his geneological traditions to Arabia of the Quraysh Banu Hashim lineage through Aqiil the son of Abu Talib ibn Abd al-Muttalib, who was the Uncle of the Prophet Muhammed.
With the arrival of Samaale in the areas of northern Somalia, the Hawiye further crossed into Ethiopia, said to be the traditional homeland, before descending along the Shabelle Valley.
In Somalia, the Hawiye clans in Somalia can today be found inhabiting an area of fertile lands in Shabelle River of Beledweyne in the Hiran region and Jowhar in the Middle Shabelle region and stretching from the coast of Mogadishu to the north to the ancient port town of Hobyo in the arid central Mudug region. They are also found in Ethiopia and Kenya.
Role and Influence in Somalia
The Hawiye have historically played an important role in Somalia. The majority of Somalia's founding fathers hailed from the Hawiye. The first President, Prime Minister and the father of the Somali Military were all Hawiye. Aden Adde the first President was Udeejeen. The first Prime Minister Abdullahi Issa was Habar Gidir. The father of the Somali Military Daud Abdulle Hirsi was Abgaal. Since then the Hawiye have produced four more Presidents and four more Prime Ministers.
The Hawiye figure prominently in many important fields of Somali society, including the Business and Media sector. For example, Abdirahman Yabarow, the editor-in-chief of VOA Somali is kin. Yusuf Garaad Omar who was the Chairman of BBC Somali for over a decade and helped pioneer its rise during his tenure, is also a member. As are the Heads of major national Corporations - Jubba Airways and Hormuud Telecom.
Currently the Hawiye play a leading role in the regions of Galmudug, Hirshabelle and Benadir (Mogadishu), but also Somalia as a whole.
Hawiye along with some Samaale sub-clans, were said to have first migrated down the Shebelle river towards central and southern Somalia to populate the Horn of Africa. They established farmlands in the fertile plains of southern Somalia and flourishing harbor ports in south and central Somalia.
According to the 12th-century author Al-Idrisi, the Hawiye clan occupied the coastal areas between Ras Hafun and Merca, as well as the lower basin of the lower Shabelle river. Al-Idrisi's mention of the Hawiye is the first documentary reference to a specific Somali group in the Horn of Africa. Later Arab writers also make references to the Hawiye clan in connection with both Merca and the lower Shabelle valley. Ibn Sa'id (1214–74), for instance, considered Merca to be the capital of the Hawiye, who lived in fifty villages on the bank of a river which he called "the nile of Mogadishu, a clear reference to the Shabelle river.
Along with Rahanweyn, the Hawiye clan also came under the Ajuran Empire control in the 13th century that governed much of southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, with its domain extending from Hobyo in the north, to Qelafo in the west, to Kismayo in the south.
In this period, Harold Marcus credits the Hawiye as instrumental in Islamizing the communities of what is now southeast Ethiopia and southern Somalia during the 15th and 16th centuries.
Since sections of the Hawiyya were migrating southward before and during Gragn's jihad, it is not inconceivable that they brought certain theocratic notions with them. Indeed, the Ajuran maintained a wakil (governor) in the region around Qallafo. This area was not only the traditional Hawiyya homeland, but also stood midway geographically between the emirates of Harar and the Benaadir, an ideal link for the transmission of political and religious ideas.
Enrico Cerulli, an Author on key Somali social development and early history, mentions the following passage on the growth and succession of the Ajuran Sultanate.
The oral sources also provide us with recurrent themes that point to certain structural features of Ajuran rule. The descendants of the Ajuraan (among which are the Gareen imams) can therefore be understood to have inherited the spiritual (Islamic) and the secular (numerical) power provided by the alliance of the first three Hawiyya “brothers”. Ajuran power reposed on the twin pillars of spiritual preeminence and Hawiyya kinship solidarity, a potent combination in the Somali cultural context. In historical terms, a theocratic ideology superimposed on an extensive network of Hawiyya-affiliated clans helped uphold Ajuran dominance over a wide region. The Darandoolle, it should be noted, were part of the Gurqaate, a clan section collateral to the Jambelle Hawiyya from whom Ajuran (and Gareen) is said to have been descended. Intermarriage among the descedants of these uterine brothers on the one hand helped reinforce the solidarity of the Hawiyya. On the other hand, competition between collateral lines was very common in Somalia, particularly where the titular leadership of a larger clan-confederation was at stake. Such a struggle for the dominant place within the Hawiyya-dominated Ajuran confederation may also be reflected in the rise of the Silcis and El Amir in the later years of Ajuran rule. Both are said to have been descedants of Gurqaate Hawiyya, as were the Abgaal Darandoolle. Thus it can be argued that the dominant groups which appeared toward the end of the Ajuran era—the Darandoolle near Muqdisho, the Silcis near Afgooye, and the El Amir in Marka—represent the partition of the Ajuran imamate among collateral Hawiyya sections. Or perhaps one branch of the Hawiyya—namely the Gurqaate—forcibly replaced another (the Jambelle) as leaders of the clan.
The Hiraab Imamate was the main successor state of Ajuran Sultanate. The reason for their rebellion was the Ajuran rulers, in the end, became extremely prideful, neglected the sharia law, and imposed a heavy tax on their subjects which was the main reason for the rebellion. Other groups would follow in the rebellion which would eventually bring down Ajuran rule in the inter-riverine region and Benadir coast.
Lee Cassanelli in his book, The Shaping of Somali society, provides a historical picture of the Hiraab Imamate. He writes:
"According to local oral tradition, the Hiraab imamate was a powerful alliance of closely related groups who shared a common lineage under the Gorgaarte clan divisions. It successfully revolted against the Ajuran Empire and established an independent rule for at least two centuries from the seventeen hundreds and onwards.
The alliance involved the army leaders and advisors of the Habar Gidir and Duduble, a Fiqhi/Qadi of Sheekhaal, and the Imam was reserved for the Mudulood branch who is believed to have been the first born. Once established, the Imamate ruled the territories from the Shabeelle valley, the Benaadir provinces, the Mareeg areas all the way to the arid lands of Mudug, whilst the ancient port of Hobyo emerged as the commercial center and Mogadishu being its capital for the newly established Hiraab Imamate in the late 17th century.
Hobyo served as a prosperous commercial centre for the Imamate. The agricultural centres of El Dher and Harardhere included the production of sorghum and beans, supplementing with herds of camels, cattle, goats and sheep. Livestock, hides and skin, whilst the aromatic woods and raisins were the primary exports as rice, other foodstuffs and clothes were imported. Merchants looking for exotic goods came to Hobyo to buy textiles, precious metals and pearls. The commercial goods harvested along the Shabelle river were brought to Hobyo for trade. Also, the increasing importance and rapid settlement of more southerly cities such as Mogadishu further boosted the prosperity of Hobyo, as more and more ships made their way down the Somali coast and stopped in Hobyo to trade and replenish their supplies.
The economy of the Hawiye in the interior includes the predominant nomadic pastoralism, and to some extent, cultivation within agricultural settlements in the riverine area, as well as mercantile commerce along the urban coast. At various points throughout history, trade of modern and ancient commodities by the Hawiye through maritime routes included cattle skin, slaves, ivory and ambergris.
Soon afterwards, the entire region was snapped up by the fascists Italians and it led to the birth of a Modern Somalia. However, the Hiraab hereditary leadership has remained intact up to this day and enjoys a dominant influence in national Somali affairs."
Ali Jimale Ahmed outlines the Hawiye clan genealogical tree in The Invention of Somalia.
- Kaariye Karanle
- Gidir Karanle
- Seexawle Karanle
- Murursade Karanle
- Reer Mataan
- Maxamed Muuse
- Macalin Dhiblaawe
- Habar Gidir
- Reer Ayaanle
- Reer Hilowle
- Reer Jalaf
NOTE The Xawaadle, Ajuuraan and Saransoor have long been considered Hawiye, under the Gorgaarte, Jambeelle and Gugundhabe lineages respectively though there are disputes held between the lineages of their correct orderly descent. Similarly the Sheekhaal are said to be descendants of Hiraab.
Notable Hawiye figures
- Abdullahi Issa, Prime Minister of Somalia, 1956–1960
- Aden Abdullah Osman Daar, President of Somalia, 1960–1967
- Haji Farah Ali Omar, Deputy Prime Minister of Somalia, 1967–1969 
- Hussein Kulmiye Afrah, Vice President of Somalia, 1969–1991
- Mohamed Ibrahim Liqliiqato, President of the National Assembly, 1969–1991
- Ali Mahdi Muhammad, President of Somalia, 1991–2000
- Abdiqasim Salad Hassan, President of Somalia, 2000–2004
- Ali Mohammed Ghedi, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2004–2007
- Nur Hassan Hussein, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2007–2009
- Sharif Ahmed, President of Somalia, 2009–2012
- Hassan Sheikh Mohamud, President of Somalia, 2012–2017
- Hassan Ali Khaire, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2017–2020
- Mohamed Hussein Roble, Prime Minister of Somalia, 2020–2021
- Abdullahi Ahmed Addow, Somali Ambassador to the United States 1970–1980
- Abdi Mude Ibrahim, Current Lafey Constituency Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2017–2022 
- Abdirahman Janaqow, Executive Chairman of the Islamic Courts Union of Somalia (ICU), Minister of Justice
- Abukar Umar Adani, Islamist, Tycoon, Owner of the El-Ma`an Port which served as Mogadishu's temporary Port since its closure in 1995
- Bashir Raghe Shiiraar, Leader of the US-backed Alliance for Peace and the Fight Against International Terrorism
- Shaaban Ali Issack , Former Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, Assistant Minister for Urban Development, 1995–2007 
- Hassan Mohamed Hussein Mungab, Mayor of Mogadishu, Chief of the Somali Supreme Court, 2012–2016
- Mohamed Abdi Hassan, Entrepreneur, Chief Architect who captured the MV Sirius Star Ship, 2008
- Mohamed Afrah Qanyare, Politician, Businessman, Former Presidential Candidate in the 2004 elections
- Mohamed Nur, Popular Mayor of Mogadishu, 2009–2012, famously nicknamed Tarzan
- Mohamed Moallim Hassan, Politician who served as Minister of Fishery and Marine Resources of Somalia, 2010-2011
- Mohamed Hussein Ali, Former Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2007-2013
- Omar Maalim, Current Mandera Town Constituency Kenyan Member of National Assembly/Parliament, 2017-2022 
- Xaaji Firxad, Dervish Commander, Diplomat to Abyssinia, mentioned in the Geoffrey Archer's 1916 important members of Darawiish haroun list
- Daud Abdulle Hirsi, First Commander-In-Chief of the Somali National Forces in 1960, Commanding Officer of the 1964 Ethiopian–Somali Border War
- Salaad Gabeyre Kediye, Brigadier General, Father of the 1969 Kacaan Revolution
- Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Chairman of the United Somali Congress that toppled Dictator Siad Barre, battled US Delta forces and UNOSOM during Operation Restore Hope and a self declared President of Somalia before his Death, 1987–1996
- Ahmed Maxamed Xasan, Lieutenant Colonel who famously refused government orders to bomb Hargeisa in the lead up to the Civil War, 1988–1991
- Abdi Hasan Awale Qeybdiid, Longest reigning Police Commissioner, dubbed Tiger Abdi in the infamous Black Hawk Down
- Hassan Dahir Aweys, Decorated Colonel of the Ogaden War, Founder of the Islamic Courts Union
- Hussein Sheikh Ahmed Kaddare, Linguist, Author of the Kaddariya script, 1952
- Ismail Jim'ale Osoble, Lawyer, Minister of Information 1967–1969, Author of the Somali Manifesto of 1990
- Abdi Mohamed Ulusso, Writer, 2004 Presidential Candidate
- Abdirahman Yabarow, Editor-in-Chief of the VOA Somali Service
- Abdulkadir Yahya Ali, Peace Activist, Founder of the Center for Research and Dialogue 
- Ali Jimale, Educator at the City University of New York
- Ali Sheikh Ahmed, Dual President of Mogadishu University and Al-Islaah
- Elman Ali Ahmed, Entrepreneur and Social Activist
- Hilowle Imam Omar, Chairman of the Somali Civil War Reconciliation Program
- Hussein Ali Shido, Founding member of the United Somali Congress
- Ibrahim Hassan Addou, Former Professor of Washington University, Foreign Minister of the Islamic Courts Union in 2006
- Sheikh Omar Iman Abubakar, Professor and Researcher in Hadith Studies, Chairman of Hizbul Islam
Political factions and organizations
- ^ Society, Security, Sovereignty and the State in Somalia: 2001, Maria Brons, International Books, page 102
- ^ "Dagaal beeleed dad badan ay ku dhinteen oo ka dhacay Gobolka Sool". BBC News Somali (in Somali). 2018-10-22. Retrieved 2021-01-02.
- ^ Lewis, I. M.; Said Samatar (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. pp. 11–13. ISBN 3-8258-3084-5.
- ^ Lewis, I. M. (1999-01-01). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. James Currey Publishers. p. 12. ISBN 9780852552803.
- ^ Ahmed, Akbar (2013-02-27). The Thistle and the Drone: How America's War on Terror Became a Global War on Tribal Islam. Brookings Institution Press. ISBN 9780815723790.
- ^ Mukhtar, Mohamed Haji (2003-02-25). Historical Dictionary of Somalia. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 9780810866041.
- ^ Ng'ang'a, Wangũhũ (2006). Kenya's ethnic communities: foundation of the nation. Gatũndũ Publishers. ISBN 9789966975706.
- ^ Noyoo, Ndangwa (2010-01-30). Social Policy and Human Development in Zambia. Adonis & Abbey Publishers Ltd. ISBN 9781912234936.
- ^ Lewis, I. M.; Samatar, Said S. (1999). A Pastoral Democracy: A Study of Pastoralism and Politics Among the Northern Somali of the Horn of Africa. LIT Verlag Münster. ISBN 9783825830847.
- ^ a b Marcus, Harold (1975). Proceedings of the First United States Conference on Ethiopian Studies. p. 104.
- ^ The Somali, Afar and Saho groups in the Horn of Africa by I.M Lewis
- ^ UN Somalia Clan Map (PDF). 1998. p. 1.
- ^ ACCORD Somalia Clan Map. 1999. p. 30.
- ^ First Footsteps in East Africa by Richard Burton, pg 73
- ^ Abdullahi, Abdurahman (18 September 2017). Making Sense of Somali History: Volume 1. Adonis and Abbey Publishers. pp. 43–. ISBN 978-1-909112-79-7.
- ^ Fage, J. D.; Oliver, Roland; Oliver, Roland Anthony; Clark, John Desmond; Gray, Richard; Flint, John E.; Roberts, A. D.; Sanderson, G. N.; Crowder, Michael (1975). The Cambridge history of Africa: Fage, J. D. p. 137. ISBN 9780521209816.
- ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.102.
- ^ AICMAR Bulletin An Evangelical Christian Journal of Contemporary Mission and Research in Africa. 2003. p. 21.
- ^ Enrico Cerulli, Come viveva una tribù Hawiyya, ( A Cura dell'Amministrazione Fiduciaria Italiana della Somalia ; Instituto poligrafico dello Stato P.V 1959)
- ^ Cassanelli, Lee (1982). The Shaping of Somali Society. p. 124. ISBN 9780812278323.
- ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, Towns and Trading centres in Somalia: A Nomadic perspective, Philadelphia, 1980, pp. 8-9.
- ^ a b c d e Lee V. Cassanelli (1982). The Shaping of Somali Society: Reconstructing the History of a Pastoral People, 1600 to 1900. University of Pennsylvania Press. ISBN 978-0-8122-7832-3.
- ^ Kenya's past; an introduction to historical method in Africa page by Thomas T. Spear
- ^ Ali Jimale Ahmed (1995). The Invention of Somalia. Lawrenceville, NJ: Red Sea. p. 123. ISBN 0-932415-98-9.
- ^ "De-classified Documents: Foreign Relations of the United States 1964-1968, Volume XXIV Africa:346. Memorandum From the Under Secretary of State (Katzenbach) to President Johnson: March 12, 1968". Somali Watch (source: US Department of State, Washington). November 29, 200. Archived from the original on 20 November 2010. Retrieved 1 November 2010.
- ^ "Abdi Mude Ibrahim".
- ^ "Shaaban Isaack Biography, Family and Contacts". 23 June 2016.
- ^ "Omar Mohamed Maalim Hassan".
- ^ "CRD Somalia". Center for Research and Dialogue. 2005-07-12. Retrieved 2010-10-12.
- ^ "Somalia: Islamic Party Insurgents Declare War On New Govt". 8 February 2009. Retrieved 6 April 2018 – via AllAfrica.