The Invasion of Ambon was a combined Indonesian military operation which aimed to seize and annex the self proclaimed Republic of South Maluku.
Following the Dutch-Indonesian Round Table Conference, the Netherlands recognizes the independence of the Republic of United States of Indonesia (RUSI). The RUSI is a federation whose People’s Representative Council consists of 50 representatives from the Republic of Indonesia and 100 from the various states according to their populations.
Republic of United States of Indonesia (RUSI).
Distrusting the Javanese and Muslim-dominated Republic of Indonesia, the largely Protestant and pro-Dutch South Moluccans - who have long contributed forces to the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) - declare the independence of the Republic of South Maluku in Ambon and Seram on 25 April 1950. former minister of Eastern-Indonesia declared the independence and former District Deputy-Governor of South Moluccans, mister Manahutu was made President of the new Republic.
The independence declaration said the South Moluccas no longer felt secure within State of East Indonesia and were cutting their ties with RUSI. And later, former KNIL soldiers garrisoned at Ambon joined RMS and formed Armed Forces of RMS (APRMS). These are among troops who have been awaiting demobilization or transfer to the TNI.
On 17 August 1950, the Indonesian President, Sukarno, proclaimed the restoration of the unitary state of the Republic of Indonesia. This RMS was not acknowledged by Sukarno and on his order Indonesian military invaded the Moluccan island of Buru and a part of the island of Ceram.
Invasion of Ambon
At the time of the RMS proclamation, there were 7,345 former KNIL troops stationed in Ambon, including 2,500 Ambonese. These soldiers became the backbone of APRMS. After a naval blockade by the Indonesian navy, an invasion of Ambon took place on 28 September 1950. The APRMS fled from the town of Ambon before the invading Indonesian troops had taken up positions in old Dutch fortifications in the hills over looking the town. From here they waged guerilla warfare. The TNI occupied the northern half of the island, but had been halted by fierce Ambonese resistance at the one kilometre wide isthmus, which links it with the southern half. On 5 November the city of Ambon came into the hands of the Indonesian army. The RMS government fled to Ceram in December to continue the war in the form of a guerilla warfare. "The town of Ambon had been wiped out except for four buildings," an eyewitness told an Australian newspaper. "The Indonesians had constantly shelled the town and planes had strafed it, but much of the destruction had been caused by arson." The fighting was ferocious, since TNI's opposition were well-trained former KNIL soldiers including the Green Caps. The Indonesian army suffered severe losses. Although the RMS soldiers were KNIL members which were well-trained and renowned for their fighting skills, the resistance of the APRMS soldiers was eventually put down in November 1950. However, Lt. Col. Slamet Rijadi who was the commander of the Indonesian army in the Maluku sector and an important participant during the offensive was killed during the final day of the campaign. 
During the Indonesian National Revolution, the Dutch had to disband the reinstated KNIL, and the native soldiers had the choice of either being demobilised or joining the army of the Republic of Indonesia. Due to a deep distrust of the Republican leadership, which was predominantly Javanese Muslim, this was an extremely difficult choice for the Protestant Ambonese, and only a minority chose to serve with the Indonesian Army. Disbanding proved a complicated process and, in 1951, two years after the transfer of sovereignty, not all soldiers had been demobilised. The Dutch were under severe international pressure to disband the colonial army and temporarily made these men part of the regular Dutch army, while trying to demobilise them in Java. Herein lay the source of the discontent among the Moluccan soldiers as, according to the KNIL policy, soldiers had the right to choose the place where they were to be discharged at the end of their contract. The political situation in the new Republic of Indonesia was initially unstable and, in particular, controversy over a federal or centralised form of the state resulted in armed conflicts in which Ambonese ex-KNIL men were involved. In 1951 an independent Republic of the South Moluccas (Indonesian: RMS, Republik Maluku Selatan) was proclaimed at Ambon. The RMS had strong support among the Ambonese KNIL soldiers. As a consequence the Moluccan soldiers located outside the South Moluccas demanded to be discharged at Ambon. But Indonesia refused to let the Dutch transport these soldiers to Ambon as long as the RMS was not repressed, fearing prolonged military struggle. When after heavy fighting the RMS was repressed at Ambon, the soldiers refused to be discharged there. They now demanded to be demobilised at Seram, where pockets of resistance against Indonesia still existed. This was again blocked by Indonesia.
The Dutch government finally decided to transport the remaining men and their families to the Netherlands. They were discharged on arrival and 'temporarily' housed in camps until it was possible for them to return to the Moluccan islands. In this way around 12,500 persons were settled in the Netherlands, more or less against their will and certainly also against the original plans of the Dutch government.
After the defeat of the RMS on Ambon by Indonesian forces in November 1950, the self-declared government withdrew to Seram, where an armed struggle continued on until December 1963. The government in exile moved to the Netherlands in 1966, following resistance leader and president Chris Soumokil's capture and execution by Indonesian authorities. The exiled government continues to exist, with John Wattilete as its incumbent president since April 2010.
The Proclamation of the RMS has been a subject on the agenda of the United Nations, but was displaced there by the Korea War. On October 1, the RMS government requested intervention from the UN Security Council, Australia and the Netherlands to invade Indonesian troops. The Netherlands indicated that this was a matter for the UN and referred to the RTC transfer. 
The military engagements in Maluku prompted Kawilarang to establish what would later become Indonesia's special forces Kopassus.
- ^ A 100-400 figure was given by an Australian lieutenant stationed in Ambon, while the TNI chief of operations in the region estimated 100 to 120 killed
- ^ a b c d Chauvel, Richard (2008). Nationalists, Soldiers and Separatists: The Ambonese Islands from Colonialism to Revolt, 1880-1950. BRILL. p. 391. ISBN 9789004253957.
- ^ "Amboinese Secede From Indonesia In New Federation's Forth Revolt" (PDF). New York Times. Associated Press. 27 April 1950. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ "Invasion of Ambon". The Cairns Post. 23 October 1950. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ "First-Hand Accound of Ambon Invasion". The West Australian. 13 December 1950. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ "Indonesia takes amboina, says revolt is over". The Evening Star. Associated Press. 4 November 1950. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ "Invasion of Ambon by Indonesian forces". The West Australian. 5 October 1950. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
- ^ "Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955–1957, Southeast Asia, Volume XXII - Office of the Historian".
- ^ De plechtigheden in Djakarta bij de opheffing van het KNIL. Video footage showing the official ceremony disbanding the KNIL.
- ^ The complicated story of the disbanding of the KNIL is set out briefly here. For a more extended analysis see Manuhutu (1987); Steylen (1996: 33-63); van Amersfoort (1982: 101-8). The psychological impact of the dissolution of the KNIL on the Ambonese servicemen is described in Wittermans (1991).
- ^ "Invasie op Ambon begonnen Indonesische korvetten schieten van de baai uit op de stad Ambon vraagt tussenkomst van de Veiligheidsraad, Nederland en Australië". "De Gooi- en Eemlander : nieuws- en advertentieblad". Hilversum, 02-10-1950. Geraadpleegd op Delpher op 26-08-2019, https://resolver.kb.nl/resolve?urn=ddd:011155482:mpeg21:a0019
- ^ Conboy, Kenneth J. (2003). Kopassus: Inside Indonesia's Special Forces. Jakarta: Equinox Publishing. p. 16. ISBN 9-7995-8988-6.