Islamic eschatology is the aspect of Islamic theology incorporating the afterlife and the end of the world, with special emphasis in the Quran on the inevitability of resurrection, the final judgment, and the eternal division of the righteous and the wicked, which take place on the Day of Resurrection. Also known as the Day of Judgement, it is characterized by the annihilation of all life, which will then be followed by the resurrection and judgment by God. Multiple verses in the Qur'an mention the Last Judgment.
Similar to other Abrahamic religions, Islam teaches that there will be a resurrection of the dead that will be followed by a final tribulation and eternal division of the righteous and wicked. The Great Tribulation is described in the hadith and commentaries of the ulama, including al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir and Muhammad al-Bukhari, among others. The Day of Judgement is called several names throughout the Qur'an, such as the Day of Reckoning, the Last Day, and the Hour (al-sā'ah).
The hadiths describe several events happening before the Day of Judgment, which are described as several minor signs and major signs. During this period, terrible corruption and chaos would rule the earth, caused by the Masih ad-Dajjal (similar to the Antichrist in Christianity), then Prophet Isa (Jesus) will appear, defeating the Dajjal and establish a period of peace, liberating the world from cruelty. These events will be followed by a time of serenity when people live according to religious values.
Islamic apocalyptic literature describing Armageddon is often known as fitna, Al-Malhama Al-Kubra (The Great Epic) or ghaybah in Shī'a Islam. The righteous are rewarded with the pleasures of Jannah (Paradise), while the unrighteous are punished in Jahannam (Hell).
A 2012 poll by Pew research found that 50% or more respondents in several Muslim-majority countries (Turkey, Malaysia, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iraq, Tunisia, Lebanon, Morocco) expected the Mahdi to return in their lifetime.
Diagram of "Plain of Assembly"(Ard al-Hashr)
on the Day of Judgment, from autograph manuscript of Futuhat al-Makkiyya
mystic and philosopher Ibn Arabi
, ca. 1238. Shown are the 'Arsh (Throne of God
), pulpits for the righteous (al-Aminun), seven rows of angels
(al-Ruh), A'raf (the Barrier), the Pond of Abundance
, al-Maqam al-Mahmud (the Praiseworthy Station; where the prophet Muhammad will stand to intercede for the faithful), Mizan (the Scale), As-Sirāt
(the Bridge), Jahannam
(Hell) and Marj al-Jannat
(Meadow of Paradise).
Sources for Islamic Eschatology
Islamic scripture has a plethora of content on the Last Judgment and the tribulation associated with it. The two sources which are primarily referred to when exploring the topic of Islamic eschatology are the Quran itself and the hadith, or accounts of the actions and sayings of Muhammad during his lifetime. One of the functions of the Quran as it relates to eschatology and the Day of Judgement is to serve as a reminder of Allah's intentions for humanity and as a warning for those who do not abide by Him. Hadith are often referred to in tandem with the Quran in order to create a more detailed and comprehensive understanding of Islamic scripture. The compilation of hadith took place approximately two hundred years after the death of Muhammad. The Last Judgment and the tribulation have also been discussed in the commentaries of ulama such as al-Ghazali, Ibn Kathir, and Muhammad al-Bukhari. Scholarly discourse on eschatology and its sub themes often includes an exploration of hadith as they pertain to matters in the Quran, and serve as a source for clarification. Hadith are generally viewed as being second in authority to the Quran, as the Quran is generally understood to be the verbatim word of God.
Signs of the End Times
In Islam, there are a number of minor signs and major signs. The Mahdi is said to be a link between the minor and major signs. In the Hadith, it is mentioned that minor signs will occur first, then the Mahdi will come and then the major signs. There is debate over whether they could occur concurrently or must be at different points in time.
- Sexual immorality appears among people to such an extent that they commit it openly, except that they will be afflicted by plagues and diseases unknown to their forefathers;
- People cheat in weights and measures (business, trades, etc.) and are stricken with famine, calamity, and oppression as a result;
- They withhold charity and hoard their wealth, and rain is withheld from the sky from them;
- They break their covenant with God and His Messenger and God enables their enemies to overpower them and take some of what is in their hands;
- Men and women partake in sihr and shirk; they travel the world through attaching themselves to djinn, causing mischief;
- Unless their leaders rule according to the Book of Allah and seek all good from that which Allah has revealed, Allah will cause them to fight one another.[note 1]
- The conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul)
- The coming of fitna (tribulations) and removal of khushoo (fearfulness of God, reverence of God, etc.)[note 2]
- A person passing by a grave might say to another the following: "I wish it were my abode."[note 3]
- The loss of honesty, as well as authority put in the hands of those who do not deserve it.[note 4]
- The loss of knowledge and the prevalence of religious ignorance.[note 5]
- Frequent, sudden, and unexpected deaths.[note 6]
- Increase in pointless killings.[note 7]
- Acceleration of time.[note 8]
- Rejection of the Hadith.[note 9]
- The spread of riba (usury, interest), zina (adultery, fornication, prostitution, rape,[note 10] sodomy, pedophilia and pederasty,[note 11] homosexuality,[note 12] incest,[note 13] and bestiality), and the drinking of alcohol.[note 14]
- Widespread acceptance of music.[note 15]
- Pride and competition in the decoration of mosques.[note 16]
- Women will increase in number and men will decrease in number so much so that fifty women will be looked after by one man. [note 17]
- Abundance of earthquakes.[note 18]
- Frequent occurrences of disgrace, distortion, public humiliation and defamation.[note 19]
- When people wish to die because of the severe trials and tribulations that they are suffering.[note 20]
- Jews fighting Muslims.[note 21]
- When paying charity becomes a burden.[note 22]
- Nomads will compete in the construction of very tall buildings.[note 23]
- Women will appear naked despite their being dressed.[note 24]
- People will seek knowledge from misguided and straying scholars.[note 25]
- Liars will be believed, honest people disbelieved, and faithful people called traitors.[note 26]
- The death of righteous, knowledgeable people.[note 27]
- The emergence of indecency (obscenity) and enmity among relatives and neighbours.[note 28]
- The rise of idolatry and polytheists within the Ummah.[note 29]
- The Euphrates will uncover a mountain of gold.[note 30]
- The land of the Arabs will return to being a land of rivers and fields.[note 31]
- People will increasingly earn money by unlawful (Haram) ways.[note 32]
- There will be much rain but little vegetation.[note 33]
- Evil people will be expelled from Medina.[note 34]
- Wild animals will communicate with humans, and humans will communicate with objects.[note 35]
- Lightning and thunder will become more prevalent.[note 36]
- There will be a special greeting for people of distinction.[note 37]
- Trade will become so widespread that a woman will help her husband in business.[note 38]
- No truly honest man will remain and no one will be trusted.[note 39]
- Only the worst people will be left; they will not know any good nor forbid any evil (i.e. No one will say there is no god but Allah).[note 40]
- Nations will call each other to destroy Islam by any and every means.[note 41]
- Islamic knowledge will be passed on, but no one will follow it correctly.[note 42]
- Muslim rulers will come who do not follow the guidance and tradition of the Sunnah. Some of their men will have the hearts of devils in a human body.[note 43]
- Stinginess will become more widespread and honorable people will perish.[note 44]
- A man will obey his wife and disobey his mother, and treat his friend kindly while shunning his father.[note 45]
- Voices will be raised in the mosques.[note 46]
- The leader of a people will be the worst of them.[note 47]
- People will treat a man with respect because they fear the evil he could do.[note 48]
- Much wine will be drunk.[note 49]
- Muslims shall fight against a nation who wear shoes made of hair and with faces like hammered shields, with red complexions and small eyes.[note 50]
- The emergence of the Sufyani within the Syria region.[note 51]
- The truce and joint Roman-Muslim campaign against a common enemy, followed by al-Malhama al-Kubra (Armageddon), a Roman vs. Muslim war.[note 52]
- The Black Standard will come from Khorasan (see Hadith of black flags), nothing shall turn them back until it is planted in Jerusalem.[note 53]
- Mecca will be attacked and the Kaaba will be destroyed.[note 54]
- Emergence of an army, from Yemen, that will make Islam dominant.[note 55]
- An Arab king will die. There will be disagreement concerning succession. Then a man will emerge from Medina. He will hurry to Mecca, and the people of Mecca will come out to him and urge him and try to force him to accept the Bai'aa.[note 56]
- The sun would rise from West that Friday (It is the day when the world has begun to be over) 
- A first trumpet will sound, and all remaining humanity will die, followed by a period of forty years, at the end of which smoke will envelope the world for forty days
- The Qur'an will be lifted
Mahdi (Arabic: ٱلْمَهْدِيّ, ISO 233: al-mahdīy), meaning "Rightly Guided One" is a messianic figure in Islamic tradition. He makes his first appearance in the hadiths and is said to be the sign between Minor signs and Major signs of Day of Resurrection. Some Shia Muslims regard him as the first sign of the third period. Hadith reports state that he will be a descendant of Muhammad through Muhammad's daughter Fatimah and cousin Ali's son Hassan. According to Shias, Mahdi will be looked upon to kill Dajjal to end the disintegration of the Muslim community, and to prepare for the reign of Isa (Jesus), who will rule for a time thereafter. According to Sunnis, Mahdi will be against Dajjal and will have some Muslim communities in Shaam and that Jesus will return to kill Dajjal. The Mahdi will fulfill his prophetic mission, a vision of justice and peace, before submitting to Jesus' rule. The physical features of Mahdi are described in the hadith; he will be of Arab complexion, of average height, with a big forehead, large eyes, and a sharp nose. He will have a mole on his cheek, and be recognized by the Muslim community while he sits in his own home. As written by Abu Dawud, "Our Mahdi will have a broad forehead and a pointed (prominent) nose. He will fill the earth with justice as it is filled with injustice and tyranny. He will rule for seven years." In some accounts, after the seven years of peace, God will send a cold wind causing everyone with the smallest measure of human-kindness or faith, to die and carry them straight to heaven. Therefore, only the wicked will remain and be victims of terrible animals and Shayateen, until the day of resurrection.
Though the predictions of the duration of his rule differ, hadith are consistent in describing that God will perfect him in a single night, imbuing him with inspiration and wisdom, and his name will be announced from the sky. The Mahdi will bring back worship of true Islamic values, and bring the Ark of the Covenant to light. He will conquer Constantinople and Mount Daylam and will regard Jerusalem and the Dome as his home. His banner will be that of Muhammad: black and unstitched, with a halo. Furled since the death of Muhammad, the banner will unfurl when the Mahdi appears. He will be helped by angels and others that will prepare the way for him. He will understand the secrets of abjad.
Sunni and Shia perspectives
Sunni and Shia Islam have different beliefs regarding the identity of Mahdi. Historically, Sunni Islam considers religious authority as being derived from the caliph, who was appointed by the companions of Muhammad at his death and the companions of Muhammad. The Sunnis view Mahdi as a leader that is expected to arrive to rule the world and reestablish righteousness. Sunni Muslims also believe that Mahdi's name will be Muhammad and his father's name will be Abdullah, thus making his full name Muhammad ibn Abdullah. However, Twelver branch of Shias believe that Mahdi will be the twelfth Imam. Shia Muslims believe his name is Muhammad bin Hasan and that he is the son of Hasan-al-Askari. Shias believe that Mahdi hid in 873 when he was four. He maintained contact with his followers until 940, when he entered the Occultation. Twelver branch believes that al-Mahdi is the current Imam, and will emerge at the end of the current age. Some scholars say that, although unnoticed by others present, the Mahdi of Twelver Islam continues to make an annual pilgrimage while he resides outside of Mecca. In contradistinction, Sunni Islam foresees him as a separate and new person. Sunni tradition has attributed such intellectual and spiritual attributes to numerous Muslims at the end of each Muslim century from the origin of Islam to the present day. Sunni Muslims also believe that the Isa (Jesus) will pray behind Mahdi. The present Ayatollahs of Iran see themselves as joint caretakers of the office of the Imam until he returns.
The Mahdi is not described in the Quran, only in the hadith, with scholars suggesting he arose when Arabian tribes were settling in Syria under Muawiya. "They anticipated 'the Mahdi who will lead the rising people of the Yemen back to their country' in order to restore the glory of their lost Himyarite kingdom. It was believed that he would eventually conquer Constantinople."
According to Nasir Khusraw, a celebrated Fatimid thinker, the line of Imams from among Imam 'Ali's descendants though Imam Husayn will eventually culminate in the arrival of the Lord of the Resurrection (Qāʾim al-Qiyāma). This individual is believed to be the perfect being and the purpose of creation, and through him the world will come out of darkness and ignorance and "into the light of her Lord" (Quran 39:69). His era, unlike that of the enunciators of divine revelation (nāṭiqs) who came before him, is not one where God prescribes the people to work. Rather, his is an era of reward for those "who laboured in fulfilment of (the Prophets') command and with knowledge". Preceding the Lord of the Resurrection (Qāʾim al-Qiyāma) is his proof (ḥujjat). The Qur’anic verse stating that "the night of power (laylat al-qadr) is better than a thousand months" (Quran 97:3) is said to refer to the proof of the Lord of the Resurrection, whose knowledge is superior to that of a thousand Imams, though their rank, collectively, is one. Hakim Nasir also recognizes the successors of the Lord of the Resurrection to be his deputies (khulafāʾ).
Following the second period, the third will be marked by the ten major signs known as alamatu's-sa'ah al-kubra (the major signs of the end).[note 57] They are as follows without any exact order:
- A huge black cloud of smoke (dukhan) will cover the earth.[note 58]
- Three sinkings of the earth, one in the east.[note 59]
- One sinking of the earth in the west.[note 60]
- One sinking of the earth in Arabia.[note 61]
- The coming of Dajjal, presuming himself as an apostle of God.[note 62] The false messiah—anti-Christ, Masih ad-Dajjal—shall appear with great powers as a one-eyed man with his right eye blind and deformed like a grape. Although believers will not be deceived, he will claim to be God, to hold the keys to heaven and hell, and will lead many astray. In reality, his heaven is hell, and his hell is heaven. The Dajjal will be followed by seventy thousand Jews of Isfahan wearing Persian shawls.[note 63]
- The return of Isa (Jesus), from the fourth sky, to kill Dajjal.
- Ya'jooj and Ma'jooj (Gog and Magog), a Japhetic tribe of vicious beings who had been imprisoned by Dhul-Qarnayn, will break out. They will ravage the earth, drink all the water of Lake Tiberias, and kill all believers in their way. Isa, Imam Al-Mahdi, and the believers with them will go to the top of a mountain and pray for the destruction of Gog and Magog. God eventually will send disease and worms to wipe them out.[note 64]
- The sun will rise from the west.
- The Dabbat al-Ard, or Beast of the Earth, will come out of the ground to talk to people.[note 65]
- The second blow of the trumpet will be sounded, the dead will return to life, and a fire will come out of Yemen that shall gather all to Mahshar Al Qiy'amah (The Gathering for Judgment).
Descent of Jesus
While the Quran is not explicit about Jesus' return, many Muslims believe that at least two Quranic verses refer to his second coming during the end times. The probably most significant verse is Surah 4:157: "And [for] their saying, 'Indeed, we have killed the Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger of Allah.' And they did not kill him, nor did they crucify him; but [another] was made to resemble him to them. And indeed, those who differ over it are in doubt about it. They have no knowledge of it except the following of assumption. And they did not kill him, for certain." The other states: "And indeed, Jesus will be [a sign for] knowledge of the Hour, so be not in doubt of it, and follow Me. This is a straight path". (43:61)." The Arabic language is not clear, as to who the people of the book have to believe in. Tabari author of one of the most important Sunni Tafsirs argues, the verse refers to Jesus, who will unite all believers under the banner of Islam. Hadiths further elaborate the events following Jesus arrival. According to Sahih al-Bukhari, Jesus will descend among Muslims, break the cross, kill the pig and abolish the Jizya. Although traced back to Abu Hurairah, one of the sahaba, such hadiths might actually have been introduced later during civil wars in the early Abbasid Caliphate, when a savior was expected. While for Shias, the Mahdi will be the savior, some Sunnis tended to expect Jesus' return. During the early Abbasid Caliphate, wearing crucifixes in processions and holding pigs in public, was forbidden. Otherwise, the breaking of the cross, might reflect general disapproval of this symbol by Muslims, and slaying pigs a reference to Jesus exorcism of Legion.
Various eschatological interpretations exist within Shia Islam. The concept of seven celestial Hells, as well as the idea that one's souls temporarily wait in either Paradise or Hellfire until the End Times, are accounted for throughout Isma'ili Shi'i literature. Shia tradition broadly tends to recognize the coming of the Mahdi as signifying punishment to come for non-believers. Twelver Shia scholar 'Allama al-Hilli expressed that it is not possible for any Muslim to be ignorant of "the imamate and of the Return" and thus "whoever is ignorant of any of them is outside the circle of believers and worthy of eternal punishment." This statement is not indicative of all Shia eschatological thought, but does note the existence of a form of eternal punishment, or realm that is opposite Paradise.
Raj`a (Arabic: الرجعة, romanized: āl rj'ah, lit. 'Return') in Islamic terminology, refers to the Second Coming, or the return to life of a given past historical figure after that person's physical death. Shia believe that before the Day of Judgement, Muhammad al-Mahdi will return with a group of chosen companions. This return is more properly known as zuhur or 'appearance,' as the Hidden Imam is believed to have remained alive during his period of occultation, since the year 874. The return of these historical figures will signify the beginning of the Last Judgment. The purpose of this return is to establish justice for those who were oppressed in their lifetime up until their death: the oppressors are punished directly by the oppressed during this future reappearance.
Some Sunni scholars do believe in Raj’a, citing the return of numerous people, such as the Seven Sleepers, synchronous with the appearance of the Mahdi. According to Jalaluddin Al-Sayuti, in contrast to Shia belief, the return of Muhammad is not limited to a specific time in the future. Al-Sayuti did not mention if any other religious figures will return after death before the resurrection. According to Abu 'Abdullah Al-Qurtubi, raj`a is understood to be the lack of physical presence of a prophet, who marks his apparent death by absence in the physical world but will reappear, from time to time, to those who are pure in heart.
Isa is the Arabic name for Jesus, and his return is considered the third major sign of the last days (the second being the appearance of Jesus's nemesis Masih ad-Dajjal). Although Muhammad is the preeminent prophet in Islam, Jesus is mentioned in the Quran, and so is Idris (Enoch), who is said not to have died but to have been raised up by God. Thus, in accordance with post-Quranic hadith, Jesus conceivably will return to Earth as a just judge before the Day of Judgment. As written in hadith:
Hadith reference both the Mahdi and Isa simultaneously and the return of the Mahdi will coincide with the return of Isa, who will descend from the heavens in al-Quds at dawn. The two will meet, and the Mahdi will lead the people in fajr prayer. After the prayer, they will open a gate to the west and encounter Masih ad-Dajjal. After the defeat of ad-Dajjal, Isa will lead a peaceful forty-year reign until his death. He will be buried in a tomb beside Muhammad in Medina. Though the two certainly differ regarding their role and persona in Islamic eschatology, the figures of the Mahdi and Isa are ultimately inseparable, according to Muhammad. Though Isa is said to descend upon the world once again, the Mahdi will already be present.
- What will be your reaction when the son of Mary (Jesus) descends and your Imam is from among yourselves? (Sahih Muslim, bab nuzul 'isa, Vol. 2; Sahih Bukhari, kitab bad' al-khalq wa nuzul 'isa, Vol. 4)
Resurrection and final judgement
The resurrection and final judgement are fundamental beliefs in Islam. According to the Quran, without them, the creation of humanity would be in vain. Thus the Day of Judgment, al-Qiyāmah, (also known as the Day of Reckoning or Resurrection, the Last Day, or the Hour) is one of the six articles of faith in Sunni Islam, and one of seven in Shia Islam. It is believed in Islam that the Qur'an states Allah will resurrect everyone from their graves on the day of judgement. It is believed that the time is coming and that there shall be no doubt that Allah will do as promised. Just as Allah created the people, they will be brought back to the same form. Allah will double the deeds of his most faithful servants.
Kaaba destruction and the beast of the earth
Before doomsday, an Abyssinian, with short legs, will attack Mecca and destroy the Kaaba. Another sign is the appearance of the da'ba-tul-ard, or the Beast of the Earth.
The entire world will be engulfed by dukhan or smoke, for forty days, and there will be three huge earthquakes. The Quran will be taken to heaven and even the huffaz will not recall its verses. Finally, a pleasant breeze will blow that shall cause all believers to die, but infidels and sinners will remain alive. A fire will start, from Hadramawt in Yemen, that will gather all the people of the world in the land of Mahshar, and al-Qiyamah will commence.
Resurrection of the dead
In the Quran, barzakh (Arabic: برزخ) is the intermediate state for the soul, until the day of resurrection.
The eighth sign is a breeze bearing a pleasant scent, which will emanate from Yemen, causing the awliya, sulaha and the pious to die peacefully once they inhale it. After the believers die, there will be a period of 120 years during which the world will contain only kafirs, sinners, oppressors, liars, and adulterers; and there will be a reversion to idolatry.
The ninth sign is the rising of the sun from the west after a long night. After midday, the sun will set again. According to hadith:
Abu Hurayrah states that the Messenger of God (saw) said, "The Hour will not be established until the sun rises from the West and when the people see it they will have faith. But that will be (the time) when believing of the soul, that will have not believed before that time, will not benefit it.
— Ibn Maja, as-Sunan, vol. 2 p 1352-53
The final signs will be nafkhatu'l-ula, when a trumpet will be sounded for the first time, and which will result in the death of the remaining sinners. Then there will be a period of forty years, after which the eleventh sign is the sounding of a second trumpet to signal the resurrection as ba'as ba'da'l-mawt. As written in the Quran:
The Trumpet will (just) be sounded, when all that are in the heavens and on earth will swoon, except such as it will please God (to exempt). Then will a second one be sounded, when, behold, they will be standing and looking on!
All will be naked and running to the Place of Gathering, while the enemies of God will be travelling on their faces with their legs upright.
Finally, there will be no more injustice:
Surely God does not do injustice to the weight of an atom, and if it is a good deed He multiplies it and gives from Himself a great reward.
Separation of the righteous and the damned
At divine judgment, each person's Book of Deeds will be read, in which "every small and great thing is recorded," but with actions before adolescence omitted. Records shall be given with the right hand if they are good, and the left if they are evil. Even the smallest acts will not be ignored:
Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it!
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it.
This will be followed by perfect, divine, and merciful justice. The age of the hereafter, or the rest of eternity, is the final stage after the Day of Judgment, when all will receive their judgment from God.
Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] – those [among them] who believed in God and the Last Day and did righteousness – will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve.
The dead will stand in a grand assembly, awaiting a scroll detailing their righteous deeds, sinful acts, and ultimate judgment. Muhammad will be the first to be resurrected. According to ancient belief, God will descend to Mount Moriah, where he will judge souls. The complex of the Haram al-Sharif in Jerusalem, built under the Umayyad Caliph 'Abd al-Malik (r. 685-705), might thus be interpreted as a reminder of the approaching Last Judgement.
If one did good deeds, one would go to Jannah, and if unrighteous, would go to Jahannam. Punishments will include adhab, or severe pain, and khizy or shame. There will also be a punishment of the grave (for those who disbelieved) between death and the resurrection.
Although Islamic philosophers and scholars were in general agreement on a bodily resurrection after death, interpretations differ in regard to the specifications of bodily resurrection. Some of the theories are the following:
- The return to the same material body, someone had during lifetime, that will be restored.
- Conjunction of the soul with a Mithali body, which is congenial to the worlds of Barzakh and the Akhirah.
- Resurrection with a Hurqaliyati body, accordingly a second invisible body, that survives death.
Eschatological Views in the Early Muslim Period
One of the primary beliefs pertaining to Islamic eschatology during the Early Muslim Period was that all humans could receive God's mercy and were worthy of salvation. These early depictions even show how small, insignificant deeds were enough to warrant mercy. Most early depictions of the end of days depict only those who reject Tawhid, the concept of monotheism, are subject to eternal punishment. However, everybody is held responsible for their own actions. Concepts of rewards and punishments were seen as beyond this world, a view that is also held today.
Limbo Theory of Islam
In terms of classical Islam, the Limbo Theory of Islam, as described by Jane Smith and Yvonne Haddad, implies that some individuals are not immediately sent to the afterlife, but are held in a state of limbo. The fate awaiting all people after their death is either the Gardens, heaven, or the Fire, hell. Traditional interpretations agree that, at minimum, these are two of the possible fates that await the dead. However, some have interpreted 7:46, "And there will be a veil between them. And upon the Heights are men who know all by their marks. They will call out to the inhabitants of the Garden, 'peace be upon you!' They will not have entered it, though they hope". Some have taken the mention of this veil between heaven and hell as an allusion to there being individuals who are not immediately sent to their ultimate destination.
The Current Existence of the Afterlife
There was considerable debate regarding whether heaven and hell exists at the current moment. The Mu'tazila argued that heaven and hell both cannot exist until the trumpet blasts that bring in the end times occurs, as the Quran states that once the trumpet sounds, all except God will be destroyed. However, the Ash'ariya argued that although the trumpet's sounding will precede all being destroyed, creation was a constant process. Furthermore, as Adam and Eve once resided in the Garden of Eden, the garden already exists. Also, hadith reports pertaining to the Night Journey state that Muhammad saw visions of both destinations and creatures inhabiting it. Thus, heaven and hell are usually regarded as coexisting with the current world.
The Concept of Eternity
In Classical Islam, there was a consensus among the theological community regarding the finality of the Gardens; faithful servants of God would find themselves in this heaven for eternity. However, some practitioners in the early Muslim community held a concept that stated that hell may not be eternal in and of itself. These views were based upon interpretations that viewed the upper levels of Hell as only lasting for as long as God deemed necessary. Once Muslims had their sins purged, these levels would be closed. These interpretations are centered on verses 11:106-107 in the Quran, stating, "As for those who are wretched, they shall be in the Fire, wherein there shall be for them groaning and wailing, abiding therein for so long as the heavens and the earth endure, save as thy Lord wills. Surely thy Lord does whatsoever He wills". To this end, the Quran itself gives a conflicting account of Hell, stating that Hell will endure as long as Heaven will, which has been established as eternal, but also the Quran maintains the possibility that God may yet commute a sentence to Hell. In a sense, these levels of Hell were interpreted to have a similar function as Purgatory in Christianity, with the exception to this comparison being that Hell in this context is for the punishment of the sinner's complete body, as opposed to the only the soul being punished in Purgatory. Arguments questioning the permanence of Hell take the view that Hell is not necessarily solely there to punish the evil, but to purify their souls. To clarify, the Garden is the reward while the Fire is for purification.
Gender and Islamic Eschatology
Eschatological beliefs in Islam do not tend to distinguish the afterlife on the basis of gender. Amina Wadud discusses Hell and Paradise in her book "Qur'an and Woman" very briefly. Wadud mentions that the Qur'an does not mention any specific gender when talking about Hell. All genders have an equal chance and consequence to experience hell and one is not over the other. The Qur'an 43:74-76 states that "the guilty are immortal in hell's torment," not he or she. It is directed to the individual and "the basis of faith and deeds," not gender. This is consistent in the Qur'an. Amina Wadud goes on to discuss paradise, and how the Quran describes it with such detail in order to "entice" the readers and make it sound pleasing. Wadud states what the Quran says about good earthly things, and eternal things which includes women. 3:14-15 states "Beautiful of mankind is love of the joys (that come) from women and offspring..."
Traditional Islam teaches predestination for both good and evil, and that everything that has happened and will happen has already been determined. Free will and predestination have been discussed by many Muslim theologians; but the believers in free will, also known as al-qadariyya, have been overruled. Muhammad expressed predestination multiple times during his mission. Death is also seen as a homecoming. When people visit tombs, they are having a specific spiritual routine. The correct way to visit someones tomb is to recite parts of the Quran and pray for the deceased.
The fate of non-Muslims
Abu Hamid al-Ghazali categorized non-Muslims into three categories:
- 1. People who never heard of the message, who live in far away lands, such as the Byzantines ("Romans".) These will be forgiven.
- 2. People who were exposed to a distorted understanding of Islam and have no recourse to correct that information. These too will be forgiven.
- 3. People who heard of Islam because they live in neighboring lands and mix with Muslims. These have no hope of salvation.
Although many argue that anybody who thinks logically would eventually find that there is only one true, all-powerful God, however, others argue that if one has never received the message, they are not liable for not following it. This debate has been going on for centuries, however several Muslim theologicians agree that Islam is the only path, no other religion, even the other Abrahamic faiths, are proper paths to salvation. Although the Quran acknowledges the Bible as gospel, rejecting Muhammad and his message is seen as a rejection of salvation by them. Yet, Muslim scholars Muhammad Abduh and Rashid Rida disagree with the notion that the People of the Book are excluded from Jannah, with reference to Quran 4:123-124.
The fate of Jews
The Quran makes a variety of statements on the state of the Jewish community, praising their dedication to monotheism in one line and criticizing their rejection of Muhammad the next. An example of a line criticizing the Jews can be found at 5:60-61: "Say, 'Shall I inform you of something worse than that by way of recompense from God? Whomsoever God has cursed and upon whom is His Wrath, and among whom He has made some to be apes and swine, and who worship false deities, such are in a worse situation, and further astray from the right way.' When they come to you, they say, 'We believe.' But they are certainly entered with disbelief and they have certainly left with it, and God knows best what they were concealing. Thou seest many of them hastening to sin and enmity and consuming what is forbidden. Evil indeed is that which they were doing.". Another example is 5:64: "The Jews say, 'God's Hand is shackled.' Shackled are their hands, and they are cursed for what they say. Nay, but His two Hands are outstretched, He bestows as He wills. Surely that which has been sent down unto thee from thy Lord will increase many of them in rebellion and disbelief. And we cast enmity and hatred among them till the Day of Resurrection. As often they ignite a flame for war, God extinguishes it. They endeavor to work corruption upon the earth. And God loves not thee workers of corruption." However, the Qur'an also takes a more reconciliatory tone in other lines. An example of this is in 3:113-115: "They are not all alike. Among the People of the Book is an upright community who recite God's signs in the watches of the night, while they prostrate. They believe in God and the Last Day, enjoin right and forbid wrong, and hasten unto good deeds. And they are among the righteous. Whatsoever good they do, they will not be denied it. And God knows the reverent". After reconciling the different descriptions, one can gather the conclusion that some Jews are considered worthy of damnation, while others are righteous and capable of salvation. The transgressions of the "apes and pigs" are not indicative of the entire community.
Islamic eschatology in literature
Ibn al-Nafis wrote of Islamic eschatology in Theologus Autodidactus (circa AD 1270), where he used reason, science, and early Islamic philosophy to explain how he believed al-Qiyamah would unfold, told in the form of a theological fiction novel.
Imran Nazar Hosein wrote numerous books that deal with Islamic eschatology (Ilmu Ākhir al-Zamān – Knowledge of the later days), among which the most famous is Jerusalem in the Qur'an.
Mustafa Akyol criticises the current focus by the Muslim community on apocalypticism and the use of the forces of the Dajjal to explain stagnation in the Muslim world in the past two centuries vis-à-vis the West (and now East Asia). He argues that if supernatural evil is believed to be the cause of the problems of Muslims, then practical solutions such as "science, economic development and liberal democracy" will be ignored in favor of divine intervention. However, Islam is more practical than this, with Muhammad saying that if someone is planting a seed in the final hour of the Earth then they should continue to do so.
- ^ Sunan Ibn Maajah 4019
- ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 1, Hadith 0213
- ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6947
- ^ Sahih Bukhari, Volume 8, Book 076, Hadith 503
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7040
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Number 184
- ^ Imam Ahmed, recorded in Muslim
- ^ Abu Dawud Book 35, Hadith 4587
- ^ For further informations, see the articles Sexual slavery in Islam and Ma malakat aymanukum.
- ^ For further informations, see the concept of Sotadic Zone, which includes both the Arab and Islamic world. See also Child sexual abuse, Sexual exploitation of children, Bacha bazi, and The Dancing Boys of Afghanistan.
- ^ For further informations, see the articles Capital punishment in Islam, LGBT in Islam, Lut (prophet in Islam), and Sexual taboo in the Middle East.
- ^ For further informations, see the articles Cousin marriage in Islam, Cousin marriage in the Middle East, and Mahram.
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 41, Hadith 7015
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 7, Book 69, Hadith 494
- ^ Sahih ibn Majah 610
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith 81
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 237
- ^ Al-Adab Al-Mufrad 485, Book 1, Hadith 3
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 9, Book 88, Hadith Number 231
- ^ Sahih Musim Book 41, Hadith Number 6985
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 236
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 009, Book 088, Hadith Number 237
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 40, Hadith Number 6840
- ^ Musnad Imam Ahmad (no.21,334 and no.21,335
- ^ Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2209
- ^ Sahih Bukhari Volume 1, Book 3, Hadith Number 81
- ^ Musnad Ahmad
- ^ Abu-Dawud, Book 30, Number 4239 (and others)
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 041, Hadith Number 6918
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 5, Hadith 2208
- ^ Al-Bukhari
- ^ Reported by Anas and declared Sahih by Hasan al Albani
- ^ Sahih Muslim Book 7, Hadith Number 3188
- ^ Musnad Ahmad
- ^ Ahmad
- ^ Musnad Ahmad
- ^ Musnad Ahmad
- ^ Sahih Bukhari
- ^ Ahmad
- ^ Musnad Ahmad
- ^ Tirmidhee 2653 and Ibn Maajah 4048
- ^ Sahih Muslim 1847
- ^ Mujamma'uz-Zawaa'id 7/327
- ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
- ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
- ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
- ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
- ^ Sunan al-Tirmidhi
- ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6960
- ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6926
- ^ Narrated with sound chains from Dhu Mikhbar al-Najashi by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Ibn Majah, Ibn Hibban, and al-Hakim who declared it sahih and al-Dhahabi concurred. See Shaykh Shu`ayb Arna'ut's documentation of this hadith in his edition of Sahih Ibn Hibban (15:101-103 #6708-6709).
- ^ Sunan At-Tirmidhi 2269 (Weak) https://muflihun.com/tirmidhi/33/2269
- ^ Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6953
- ^ Hadith of Aden-Abyan
- ^ The Promised Deliverer (Kitab Al-Mahdi) Dawud : Book 36 : Hadith 4273
- ^ Sahih Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 6931
- ^ Sahih Muslim
- ^ Sahih Muslim
- ^ Sahih Muslim
- ^ Sahih Muslim
- ^ Dawud, Book 37, Hadith 4319
- ^ Muslim, Book 41, Hadith 7034
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While there are no references to homosexuality in the hadith collections of Boḵāri and Moslem, and no hadith at all reporting an actual occasion in which the Prophet dealt with it in any way, the other “canonical” collections do record, in various forms, his condemnation of the “act of the people of Lot,” usually in the form of a command to “Kill both the active and passive partner.” Non-canonical hadith add little more, except for one labeling sexual relations between women (sehāq) a form of fornication (zenā) and another declaring that men marrying boys will be one of the signs of the eschaton. All the relevant hadith are conveniently brought together in a series of monographs attacking the sin of sodomy (ḏamm al-lewāt), the earliest of which is that of al-Hayṯam b. Ḵalaf Duri (d. 307/919) but which were still being produced as late as the eleventh/seventeenth century.
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