Margarine (, also , ) is a spread used for flavoring, baking and cooking. It is most often used as a substitute for butter. Although originally made from animal fats, most margarine consumed today is made from vegetable oil. The foodstuff was originally named oleomargarine from Latin for oleum (olive oil) and Greek margarite (pearl indicating luster). The name was later shortened to margarine.
Margarine may be chosen for a number of reasons including lower cost, ease of availability, evidence (primarily relevant for vegetable-based margarines) that it is healthier than butter, a desire to avoid consuming animal-based products (of particular concern for vegans and also based on the assumption that the margarine is vegetable-based) and/or a simple personal preference to butter and/or other spreads on account of taste.
Butter is made from the butterfat of milk, whereas modern margarine is made mainly of refined vegetable oil and water. In some places in the United States, it is colloquially referred to as oleo, short for oleomargarine. In Britain and Australia, it can be referred to colloquially as marge. Margarine consists of a water-in-fat emulsion, with tiny droplets of water dispersed uniformly throughout a fat phase in a stable solid form. In some US jurisdictions, margarine must have a minimum fat content of 80 percent (with a maximum of 16% water) to be labelled as such, the same as butter. Colloquially in the United States, the term margarine is used to describe "non-dairy spreads" with varying fat contents.
Due to its versatility, margarine can be used as an ingredient in other food products, such as pastries, doughnuts, cakes and cookies.
First made in France in 1869, it was created by Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès in response to a challenge by Emperor Napoleon III to create a butter substitute from beef tallow for the armed forces and lower classes.
Margarine originated with the discovery by French chemist Michel Eugène Chevreul in 1813 of margaric acid (itself named after the pearly deposits of the fatty acid from Greek μαργαρίτης or μάργαρον (margaritēs / márgaron), meaning pearl-oyster or pearl, or μαργαρίς (margarís), meaning palm-tree, hence the relevance to palmitic acid). Scientists at the time regarded margaric acid, like oleic acid and stearic acid, as one of the three fatty acids that, in combination, form most animal fats. In 1853, the German structural chemist Wilhelm Heinrich Heintz analyzed margaric acid as simply a combination of stearic acid and the previously unknown palmitic acid.
Emperor Napoleon III of France offered a prize to anyone who could make a satisfactory butter alternative, suitable for use by the military and the poor. French chemist Hippolyte Mège-Mouriès invented a substance he called oleomargarine, which became shortened to the trade name margarine. Mège-Mouriès patented the concept in 1869 and expanded his initial manufacturing operation from France, but had little commercial success. In 1871, he sold the patent to the Dutch company Jurgens, now part of Unilever. In the same year a German pharmacist, Benedict Klein from Cologne, founded the first margarine factory "Benedict Klein Margarinewerke", producing the brands Overstolz and Botteram.
Dutch margarine advertising, 1893
Newspaper ad for an American oleomargarine product, 1919. Product made by the American company Swift & Company
from by-products of the animal processing business.
The principal raw material in the original formulation of margarine was beef fat. In 1871, Henry W. Bradley of Binghamton, New York received U.S. Patent 110,626 for a process of creating margarine that combined vegetable oils (primarily cottonseed oil) with animal fats. By the late 19th century, some 37 companies were manufacturing margarine in opposition to the butter industry, which protested and lobbied for government intervention, eventually leading to the 1886 Margarine Act imposing punitive fees against margarine manufacturers.
Shortages in beef fat supply combined with advances by Boyce and Sabatier in the hydrogenation of plant materials soon accelerated the use of Bradley's method, and between 1900 and 1920 commercial oleomargarine was produced from a combination of animal fats and hardened and unhardened vegetable oils. The economic depression of the 1930s, followed by rationing in America and the United Kingdom, among other countries, during World War II, led to a reduction in supply of animal fat and butter, and, by 1945, "original" margarine had almost completely disappeared from the market. In the United States, problems with supply, coupled with changes in legislation, caused manufacturers to switch almost completely to vegetable oils and fats (oleomargarine) by 1950, and the industry was ready for an era of product development.
While butter that cows produced had a slightly yellow color, margarine had a white color, making the margarine look more like lard, which many people found unappetizing. Around the late 1880s, manufacturers began coloring margarine yellow to improve sales.
Dairy firms, especially in Wisconsin, became alarmed at the potential threat to their business and by 1902, succeeded in getting legislation passed to prohibit the coloring of the stark white product. In response, the margarine companies distributed the margarine together with a packet of yellow food coloring. The product was placed in a bowl and the coloring mixed in manually. This took some time and effort, and it was not unusual for the final product to be served as a light and dark yellow, or even white, striped product. During World War II, there was a shortage of butter in the United States, and "oleomargarine" became popular. In 1951, the W.E. Dennison Company received U.S. Patent 2,553,513 for a method to place a capsule of yellow dye inside a plastic package of margarine. After purchase, the capsule was broken inside the package, and then the package was kneaded to distribute the dye. Around 1955, the artificial coloring laws were repealed, and margarine could once again be sold colored like butter.
Around the 1930s and 1940s, Arthur Imhausen developed and implemented an industrial process in Germany for producing edible fats by oxidizing synthetic paraffin wax made from coal. The products were fractionally distilled and the edible fats were obtained from the C
16 fraction which were reacted with glycerol such as that synthesized from propylene. Margarine made from them was found to be nutritious and of agreeable taste, and it was incorporated into diets contributing as much as 700 calories per day. The process required at least 60 kg of coal per kg of synthetic butter. That industrial process was discontinued after WWII due to its inefficiency.
During WWII rationing in Great Britain, only two types of margarine were available: a premium brand and a cheaper budget brand. With the end of rationing in 1955, the market was opened to the forces of supply and demand, and brand marketing became prevalent. The competition between the major producers was given further impetus with the beginning of commercial television advertising in 1955 and, throughout the 1950s and 1960s, competing companies vied with each other to produce the margarine that tasted most like butter.
In the mid-1960s, the introduction of two lower-fat blends of butter oil and vegetable oils in Scandinavia, called Lätt & Lagom and Bregott, clouded the issue of what should be called "margarine" and began the debate that led to the introduction of the term "spread". In 1978, an 80% fat product called krona, made by churning a blend of dairy cream and vegetable oils, was introduced in Europe and, in 1982, a blend of cream and vegetable oils called clover was introduced in the UK by the Milk Marketing Board. The vegetable oil and cream spread I Can't Believe It's Not Butter! was introduced into the United States in 1981, and in the United Kingdom and Canada in 1991.
In the 21st century, margarine spreads had many developments to improve their consumer appeal. Most brands phased out the use of hydrogenated oils and became trans fat free. Many brands launched refrigerator-stable margarine spreads that contain only 1/3 of the fat and calorie content of traditional spreads. Other varieties of spreads include those with added Omega-3 fatty acids, low or no salt, added plant sterols (claimed to reduce blood cholesterol), olive oil, or certified vegan oils. In the early 21st century, manufacturers provided margarines in plastic squeeze bottles to ease dispensing and offered pink margarine as a novelty.
Postcard of "Incorporating Salt and Working Moisture out of "Swift's Premium" Oleomargarine", undated
The basic method of making margarine today consists of emulsifying a blend of oils and fats from vegetable and animal sources, which can be modified using fractionation, interesterification or hydrogenation, with skimmed milk which may be fermented or soured, salt, citric or lactic acid, chilling the mixture to solidify it, and working it to improve the texture. Margarines and vegetable fat spreads found in the market can range from 10% to 90% fat, depending on dietary marketing and purpose (spreading, cooking or baking). The softer tub margarines are made with less hydrogenated and more liquid oils than block margarines.
Three types of margarine are common:
- Bottled liquid margarine to cook or top dishes.
- Soft vegetable fat spreads, high in mono- or polyunsaturated fats, which are made from safflower, sunflower, soybean, cottonseed, rapeseed, or olive oil.
- Hard margarine (sometimes uncolored) for cooking or baking.
Technically, margarine is a form of shortening, but the commercial products sold as “shortening” are generally uncolored and do not taste like butter.
To produce margarine, first oils and fats are extracted, e.g. by pressing from seeds, and then refined. Oils may undergo a full or partial hydrogenation process to solidify them. The milk/water mixture is kept separate from the oil mixture until the emulsion step. The fats are warmed so that they are liquid during the mixing process. The water-soluble additives are added to the water or milk mixture, and emulsifiers such as lecithin are added to help disperse the water phase evenly throughout the oil. Other water-soluble additives include powdered skim milk, salt, citric acid, lactic acid, and preservatives such as potassium sorbate. The fat soluble additives are mixed into the oil. These include carotenoids for coloring and antioxidants. Then the two mixtures are emulsified by slowly adding the oil into the milk/water mixture with constant stirring. Next, the mixture is cooled. Rapid chilling avoids the production of large crystals and results in a smooth texture. The product is then rolled or kneaded. Finally, the product may be aerated with nitrogen to facilitate spreading it.
of a typical plant oil to a typical component of margarine. Most of the C=C double bonds are removed in this process, which elevates the melting point of the product.
Vegetable and animal fats are similar compounds with different melting points. Fats that are liquid at room temperature are generally known as oils. The melting points are related to the presence of carbon-carbon double bonds in the fatty acids components. A higher number of double bonds gives a lower melting point. Oils can be converted into solid substances at room temperature through hydrogenation.
Commonly, natural oils are hydrogenated by passing hydrogen gas through the oil in the presence of a nickel catalyst, under controlled conditions. The addition of hydrogen to the unsaturated bonds (alkenic double C=C bonds) results in saturated C-C bonds, effectively increasing the melting point of the oil and thus "hardening" it. This is due to the increase in van der Waals' forces between the saturated molecules compared with the unsaturated molecules. However, as there are possible health benefits in limiting the amount of saturated fats in the human diet, the process is controlled so that only enough of the bonds are hydrogenated to give the required texture. Margarines made in this way are said to contain hydrogenated fat. This method is used today for some margarines although the process has been developed and sometimes other metal catalysts are used such as palladium. If hydrogenation is incomplete (partial hardening), the relatively high temperatures used in the hydrogenation process tend to flip some of the carbon-carbon double bonds into the "trans" form. If these particular bonds are not hydrogenated during the process, they remain present in the final margarine in molecules of trans fats, the consumption of which has been shown to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. For this reason, partially hardened fats are used less and less in the margarine industry. Some tropical oils, such as palm oil and coconut oil, are naturally semi-solid and do not require hydrogenation.
In a 100-gram reference amount, margarine – manufactured from soybean oil and pasteurized – provides 628 calories and is composed of 70% fat, 2% carbohydrates, 26% water, and negligible protein (table). The reference margarine was rich in vitamin E (37% of the Daily Value, DV), containing 35 mg gamma-tocopherol) and sodium (47% DV) added as salt for flavor. Unless fortified with micronutrients during manufacturing, there are no other nutrients in significant content. Vitamin A and vitamin D may be added for fortification.
Amount of fat
The roles of butter and traditional margarine (80% fat) are similar with respect to their energy content, but low-fat margarines and spreads are also widely available.
Replacing saturated and trans unsaturated fats with unhydrogenated monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats is more effective in preventing coronary heart disease than reducing overall fat intake. See saturated fat and cardiovascular disease.
Vegetable fats can contain anything from 7% to 86% saturated fatty acids. Liquid oils (canola oil, sunflower oil) tend to be on the low end, while tropical oils (coconut oil, palm kernel oil) and fully hardened (hydrogenated) oils are at the high end of the scale. A margarine blend is a mixture of both types of components. Generally, firmer margarines contain more saturated fat.
Typical soft tub margarine contains 10% to 20% of saturated fat. Regular butterfat contains 52 to 65% saturated fats. The American Institute of Medicine and the European Food Safety Authority recommend saturated fat intake to be as low as possible.
Consumption of unsaturated fatty acids has been found to decrease LDL cholesterol levels and increase HDL cholesterol levels in the blood, thus reducing the risk of contracting cardiovascular diseases.
There are two types of unsaturated oils: mono- and poly-unsaturated fats, both of which are recognized as beneficial to health in contrast to saturated fats. Some widely grown vegetable oils, such as canola, sunflower, safflower, and olive oils contain high amounts of unsaturated fats. During the manufacture of margarine, makers may convert some unsaturated fat into hydrogenated fats or trans fats to give them a higher melting point so they stay solid at room temperatures.
- Omega-3 fatty acids Omega-3 fatty acids are a family of polyunsaturated fatty acids. This is one of the two essential fatty acids, so called because humans cannot manufacture it and must get it from food. Omega-3 fatty acids are mostly obtained from oily fish caught in northern waters. They are comparatively uncommon in vegetable sources, including margarine. However, one type of omega-3 fatty acid, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) can be found in some vegetable oils. Flax oil contains 30-50% of ALA, and is becoming a popular dietary supplement to rival fish oils; both are often added to premium margarines. An ancient oil plant, Camelina sativa, has recently gained popularity because of its high omega-3 content (30-45%), and it has been added to some margarines. Hemp oil contains about 20% ALA. Small amounts of ALA are found in vegetable oils such as soybean oil (7%), canola oil (7%) and wheat germ oil (5%).
- Omega-6 fatty acids Omega-6 fatty acids are also important for health. They include the essential fatty acid linoleic acid (LA), which is abundant in vegetable oils grown in temperate climates. Some, such as hemp (60%) and the common margarine oils corn (60%), cottonseed (50%) and sunflower (50%), have large amounts, but most temperate oil seeds have over 10% LA. Margarine is very high in omega-6 fatty acids. Modern Western diets are frequently quite high in omega-6 but very deficient in omega-3. The omega-6 to omega-3 ratio is typically 5:1 to 10:1. Large amounts of omega-6 decreases the effect of omega-3. Therefore, it is recommended that the ratio in the diet should be less than 4:1, although the optimal ratio may be closer to 1:1.
Unlike essential fatty acids, trans fatty acids are not essential and provide no known benefit to human health besides providing calories. There is a positive linear trend between trans fatty acid intake and LDL cholesterol concentration, and therefore increased risk of coronary heart disease, by raising levels of LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of HDL cholesterol.
Several large studies have indicated a link between consumption of high amounts of trans fat and coronary heart disease, and possibly some other diseases, prompting a number of government health agencies across the world to recommend that the intake of trans fats be minimized.
In the United States, partial hydrogenation has been common as a result of preference for domestically produced oils. However, since the mid-1990s, many countries have started to move away from using partially hydrogenated oils. This led to the production of new margarine varieties that contain less or no trans fat.
The United States Food and Drug Administration ordered that trans fat is to be eliminated from food processing after a three-year grace period beginning in June 2015, to then be implemented by June 18, 2018.
High levels of cholesterol, particularly low-density lipoprotein, are associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and atheroma formation. The narrowing of blood vessels can cause reduced blood flow to the brain, heart, kidneys and other parts of the body. Cholesterol, though needed metabolically, is not essential in the diet, because the body's production increases as needed when dietary intake falls. The human body makes cholesterol in the liver, adapting the production according to its food intake, producing about 1 g of cholesterol each day or 80% of the needed total body cholesterol. The remaining 20% comes directly from food intake (in those who eat animal products).
Overall intake of cholesterol as food has less effect on blood cholesterol levels than the type of fat eaten. Most margarines are vegetable-based and thus contain no cholesterol, while a teaspoon (5 grams) of butter contains 10.8 mg of cholesterol.
Plant sterol esters and stanol esters
Plant sterol esters or plant stanol esters have been added to some margarines and spreads because of their cholesterol-lowering effect. Several studies have indicated that consumption of about 2 grams per day provides a reduction in LDL cholesterol of about 10%.
Margarine, particularly polyunsaturated margarine, has become a major part of the Western diet and had overtaken butter in popularity in the mid-20th century. In the United States, for example, in 1930, the average person ate over 18 lb (8.2 kg) of butter a year and just over 2 lb (0.91 kg) of margarine. By the end of the 20th century, an average American ate around 5 lb (2.3 kg) of butter and nearly 8 lb (3.6 kg) of margarine.
Margarine has a particular market value to those who observe the Jewish dietary laws of Kashrut, which forbids the mixing of meat and dairy products; hence there are strictly kosher non-dairy margarines available, known as Pareve. One brand known to the Kosher-keeping public is Fleischmann's Margarine. These are often used by the kosher-observant consumers to adapt recipes that use meat and butter or in baked goods served with meat meals. The 2008 Passover margarine shortage in America caused much consternation within the kosher-observant community.
Regular margarine contains trace amounts of animal products such as whey or dairy casein extracts. However, margarine that strictly does not contain animal products also exists. Such margarines provide a vegan substitute for butter.
Margarine is common in Australian supermarkets. Sales of the product have decreased in recent years due to consumers "reducing their use of spreads in their daily diet". Butter-colored margarine was sold from its introduction in Australia, but dairy and associated industries lobbied governments strongly in a (vain) attempt to have them change its color, or banned altogether.
Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.4.2 – Edible Oil Spreads requires that edible oil spreads and table margarine must contain no less than 55 μg/kg of vitamin D.
Canadian standard B.09.016 states that margarine shall be:
"An emulsion of fat, or water in fat, oil, or fat and oil that are not derived from milk and shall contain not less than 80% fat and not less than 3300 IU of vitamin A and 530 IU of vitamin D."
Calorie reduced margarine is specified in standard B.09.017 as:
"Containing not less than 40% fat and having 50% of the calories normally present in margarine."
In 2007, Health Canada released an updated version of the Canada's Food Guide that recommended Canadians choose "soft" margarine spreads that are low in saturated and trans fats and limit traditional "hard" margarines, butter, lard, and shortening in their diets.
Under European Union directives, distinguishes between spreadable fats:
"A water-in-oil emulsion derived from vegetable/animal fats, with a fat content of at least 10% but less than 90%, that remain solid at a temperature of 20°C and are suitable as spread."
"To avoid any possible confusion, the Regulation limits the use of the terms "butter" and "margarine" to products with a fat content of not less than 80%."
Margarines may not have a milk fat content of more than 3%. For blends and blended spreads, the milk fat may be between 10% and 80%.
Spread that contains 60 to 62% of fat may be called "three-quarter-fat margarine" or "reduced-fat margarine".
Spread that contains 39 to 41% of fat may be called "half-fat margarine", "low-fat margarine", or "light margarine".
Spreads with any other percentage of fat are called "fat spread" or "light spread".
Many member states currently require the mandatory addition of vitamins A and D to margarine and fat spreads for reasons of public health. Voluntary fortification of margarine with vitamins had been practiced by manufacturers since 1925, but in 1940 with the advent of the war, certain governments took action to safeguard the nutritional status of their nations by making the addition of vitamin A and D compulsory. This mandatory fortification was justified in the view that margarine was being used to replace butter in the diet.
In the United Kingdom, no brands of spread on sale contain partially hydrogenated oils. Fortification with vitamins A and D is no longer mandatory for margarine, this brings it in line with other spreads wherein fortification is not required.
Since margarine intrinsically appears white or almost white, by preventing the addition of artificial coloring agents, legislators found they could protect the dairy industries by discouraging the consumption of margarine based on visual appeal. If margarine were colored the same as butter, consumers would see it as being virtually the same thing as butter, and as a natural product. Bans on adding color became commonplace in the United States, Canada, and Denmark and, in some cases, those bans endured for almost 100 years. The rivalry between the dairy industry and the oleomargarine industry persists even today.
In Canada, margarine was prohibited from 1886 to 1948, though this ban was temporarily lifted from 1917 until 1923 due to dairy shortages. Nevertheless, bootleg margarine was produced in the neighboring Dominion of Newfoundland from whale, seal, and fish oil by the Newfoundland Butter Company and was smuggled to Canada where it was widely sold for half the price of butter. The Supreme Court of Canada lifted the margarine ban in 1948 in the Margarine Reference. That year, Newfoundland negotiated its entry into the Canadian Confederation, and one of its three non-negotiable conditions for union with Canada was a constitutional protection for the new province's right to manufacture margarine.
In 1950, as a result of a court ruling giving provinces the right to regulate the product, rules were implemented in much of Canada regarding margarine's color, requiring that it be bright yellow or orange in some provinces or colorless in others. By the 1980s, most provinces had lifted the restriction. However, in Ontario it was not legal to sell butter-colored margarine until 1995. Quebec, the last Canadian province to regulate margarine coloring, repealed its law requiring margarine to be colorless in July 2008.
In New Zealand, the Margarine Acts of 1895 and 1908 prohibited the manufacture of margarine without a licence from the Minister of Agriculture and made it illegal to "mix, colour, stain, or powder margarine with any ingredient or material so as to imitate butter". The acts were repealed by the Dairy Industry Amendment Act 1989, however previous amendments in 1972 and 1980 had allowed "virtually an opened market".
Cudahy's Delrich brand of margarine used a "color berry" to color its white vegetable-based margarine yellow. This 1948 advertisement demonstrates how to color the margarine inside the package
In 1877, New York became the first U.S. state to attempt legal restriction of the sale of oleomargarine through compulsory labeling. The law, "to prevent deception in sales of butter," required retailers to provide customers with a slip of paper that identified the "imitation" product as margarine. This law proved ineffective, as it would have required an army of inspectors and chemists to enforce it. By the mid-1880s, the U.S. federal government had introduced a tax of two cents per pound, and manufacturers needed an expensive license to make or sell the product. The simple expedient of requiring oleo manufacturers to color their product distinctively was, however, left out of early federal legislation. But individual states began to require the clear labeling of margarine. The color bans, drafted by the butter lobby, began in the dairy states of New York and New Jersey. In several states, legislatures enacted laws to require margarine manufacturers to add pink colorings to make the product look unpalatable, despite the objections of the oleo manufacturers that butter dairies themselves added annatto to their product to imitate the yellow of mid-summer butter.
By the start of the 20th century, eight out of ten Americans could not buy yellow margarine, and those who could had to pay a hefty tax on it. Bootleg colored margarine became common, and manufacturers began to supply food-coloring capsules so the consumer could knead the yellow color into margarine before serving it. Nevertheless, the regulations and taxes had a significant effect: the 1902 restrictions on margarine color, for example, cut annual consumption in the United States from 120,000,000 to 48,000,000 pounds (54,000 to 22,000 t).
With the coming of World War I, margarine consumption increased enormously, even in countries away from the front, such as the United States. In the countries closest to the fighting, dairy products became almost unobtainable and were strictly rationed. The United Kingdom, for example, depended on imported butter from Australia and New Zealand, and the risk of submarine attacks meant little arrived.
The long-running battle between the margarine and dairy lobbies continued: in the United States, the Great Depression brought a renewed wave of pro-dairy legislation; the Second World War, a swing back to margarine. Post-war, the margarine lobby gained power and, little by little, the main margarine restrictions were lifted, the most recent states to do so being Minnesota in 1963 and Wisconsin in 1967. Lois Dowdle Cobb (1889–1987) of Atlanta, wife of the agricultural publisher Cully Cobb, led the move in the United States to lift the restrictions on margarine. Some unenforced laws remain on the books.
- Commercial oils
- ^ Wells, John (3 April 2008). Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.). Pearson Longman. ISBN 978-1-4058-8118-0.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Rupp R (13 August 2014). "The Butter Wars: When Margarine Was Pink". The Plate: National Geographic. Archived from the original on 1 August 2018. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- ^ "Oleo - Definition and More from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "marge in Collins Dictionary". Retrieved 5 May 2018.
- ^ a b c Rajah, Kanes (1 May 2005). "Spread thickly with innovation: with the basic concept of spreads unchanged for decades, producers have to be increasingly innovative in their product development and marketing. Kanes Rajah outlines some successful strategies". Al Business website. The Gale Group, Inc. Archived from the original on 30 November 2007. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b c "Margarine, Part 166: Subpart B, Requirements for Specific Standardized Margarine". Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Subchapter B, Food for Human Consumption, US Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- ^ Matthew Boyle. "Unilever Adds Butter to Margarine as the Foods' Fortunes Reverse - Businessweek". Businessweek.com. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
Although margarine was originally made primarily from beef fat, the products most people call margarine today are spreads
- ^ Ian P. Freeman (2005). "Margarines and Shortenings". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. doi:10.1002/14356007.a16_145.
- ^ a b c Baker Christopher G.J; Ranken H.D; Kill R.C., eds. (1997). Food industries manual. 24th Edition. Springer. pp. 285–289. ISBN 978-0-7514-0404-3. Retrieved 13 November 2009.
- ^ Entry μαργαρίς at LSJ
- ^ C.G. Lehmann, Lehrbuch der physiologischen Chemie, Verlag Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig (1853) p71.
- ^ Science Power 9: Atlantic Edition, McGraw-Hill Ryerson Limited. ISBN 0-07-560905-3.
- ^ Anon. "Stork Margarine:How it all started". Unilever :Our Brands. Unilever. Archived from the original on 12 October 2009. Retrieved 21 October 2009.
- ^ Johannes Maubach: Auf den Spuren der alten Ehrenfelder Industrie, Köln 2005, page 55
- ^ US patent 110626, Bradley, Henry W., "Improvement in compounds for culinary use"
- ^ Schleifer, David (January 2012). "The Perfect Solution: How Trans Fats Became the Healthy Replacement for Saturated Fats". Technology and Culture. Johns Hopkins University Press. 53 (1): 94–119. doi:10.1353/tech.2012.0018. PMID 22530389. S2CID 26343964. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- ^ a b c d e Clark, Paul (6 May 1983). "The marketing of margarine" (PDF). Paper presented to a seminar on Marketing and Advertising in the 20th Century at Central London Polytechnic. Emeral Backfiles. p. 54. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ Imhausen, Arthur (1943). "Die Fettsäure-Synthese und ihre Bedeutung für die Sicherung der deutschen Fettversorgung". Kolloid-Zeitschrift. 103 (2): 105–108. doi:10.1007/BF01502087. S2CID 93119728.
- ^ Whitmore, Frank C. (1951). Organic Chemistry. Dover Publications Inc. p. 256.
- ^ a b "Synthetic Soap and Edible Fats". Chemical Age. 54: 308. 1946.
- ^ Maier, Elke (April 2016). "Coal-in Liquid Form" (PDF). Max Planck Research. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. pp. 78–79.
- ^ Ihde, Aaron J. (1964). The Development of Modern Chemistry. Harper & Row. p. 683.
- ^ Lazarus, George (1 June 1981). "Filbert can't believe you won't like its new butter blend". Chicago Tribune. ("Filbert has moved into the Syracuse, Albany, and Pittsburgh markets with a one-pound blend called "I Can't Believe It's Not Butter."") (subscription required)
- ^ "Brands in action". Archived from the original on 14 April 2005. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 November 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ Clayton, William (1920). Margarine. Longmans, Green and Co.
- ^ a b Anon. "Margarine". Butter through the ages. webexhibits.org. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ a b Clark, Jim. "The Hydrogenation of Alkenes:Margarine Manufacture". Chemguide: Helping you to understand Chemistry. Retrieved 9 November 2009.
- ^ a b Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 423.
- ^ "Palm Oil/Palm Kernel Oil Applications - Margarine" (PDF). The Malaysian Palm Oil Council. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 February 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- ^ Shurtleff, William; Aoyagi, Akiko (2007). "History of Soy Oil Margarine". Soyinfo Center. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
- ^ "Dietary fats: Know which types to choose". Mayo Clinic. 31 January 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- ^ a b F. B. Hu; et al. (November 1997). "Dietary Fat Intake and the Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Women". The New England Journal of Medicine. 337 (21): 1491–1499. doi:10.1056/NEJM199711203372102. PMID 9366580.
- ^ a b Müller; et al. (January 2003). "The Serum LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio Is Influenced More Favorably by Exchanging Saturated with Unsaturated Fat Than by Reducing Saturated Fat in the Diet of Women". Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- ^ a b Hu, Manson, Willett (2001). "Types of Dietary Fat and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease: A Critical Review". Journal of the American College of Nutrition. 20 (1): 5–19. doi:10.1080/07315724.2001.10719008. PMID 11293467. S2CID 16914803. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 18 May 2008.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- ^ a b Jeppesen; et al. (2001). "Low Triglycerides–High High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Risk of Ischemic Heart Disease". Archives of Internal Medicine. 161 (3): 361–6. doi:10.1001/archinte.161.3.361. PMID 11176761. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- ^ a b NutriStrategy (2005). "Fats, Cooking Oils and Fatty Acids". Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- ^ a b "Foods". National Institute for Health and Welfare (Finland). 2003–2010. Retrieved 10 October 2010.
- ^ "Search the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference". USDA. Archived from the original on 3 March 2015. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ Aranceta, Javier; Pérez-Rodrigo, Carmen (1 June 2012). "Recommended dietary reference intakes, nutritional goals and dietary guidelines for fat and fatty acids: a systematic review" (PDF). The British Journal of Nutrition. 107 Suppl 2: S8-22. doi:10.1017/S0007114512001444. ISSN 1475-2662. PMID 22591906. S2CID 2606487.
- ^ Clear Springs Press (2006). "Omega-3 and Omega-6 Essential fatty Acids (EFA)". Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- ^ Chico College of Agriculture (18 January 2007). "Grass Fed Beef – Health Benefits". Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 18 July 2008.
- ^ Food and nutrition board, institute of medicine of the national academies (2005). Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids (Macronutrients). National Academies Press. p. 504.
- ^ "Trans fat: Avoid this cholesterol double whammy". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). Retrieved 10 December 2007.
- ^ Willett, W.C.; Stampfer, M.J.; Mason, J.E.; Colditz, G.A.; Speizer, F.E.; Rosner, B.A.; Sampson, L.A.; Hennekes, C.H. (1993). "Intake of trans fatty acids and risk of coronary heart disease among women". Lancet. 341 (8845): 581–585. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(93)90350-p. PMID 8094827. S2CID 2616254.
- ^ Hayakawa, K.; Linko, Y.Y.; Linko, P. (2000). "The role of trans fatty acids in human nutrition". Journal of Lipid Science and Technology. 102 (6): 419–425. doi:10.1002/1438-9312(200006)102:6<419::aid-ejlt419>3.3.co;2-p.
- ^ The Nurses' Health Study (NHS)
- ^ E. Flöter, G. van Duijn, "Trans-free fats for use in foods," in: Modifying Lipids for Use in Foods (editor F.D. Gunstone), Woodhead, Cambridge, UK, 2006, pp. 429–443.
- ^ van Duijn, Gerrit (2005). "Technical aspects of trans reduction in modified fats" (PDF). Oléagineux, Corps Gras, Lipides. 12 (5–6): 422–426. doi:10.1051/ocl.2005.0422.
- ^ "Final Determination Regarding Partially Hydrogenated Oils (Removing Trans Fat)". US Food and Drug Administration. 29 September 2017. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- ^ a b "Guideline for Treating Blood Cholesterol to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk". American College of Cardiology. 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2017.
- ^ Harvard School of Public Health. "The Nutrition Source – Fats and Cholesterol".
- ^ Katan; et al. (2003). "Efficacy and Safety of Plant Stanols and Sterols in the Management of Blood Cholesterol Levels". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 78 (8): 965–78. doi:10.4065/78.8.965. PMID 12911045.
- ^ IFIC (July 2007). "Functional Foods Fact Sheet: Plant Stanols and Sterols". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2008.
- ^ Anon. "Eating less butter and more fat". Butter through the Ages. webexhibits.org. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ "Is margarine vegan?". about.com. Retrieved 12 January 2014.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 May 2005. Retrieved 3 April 2009.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ http://nla.gov.au/nla.news-article131669787
- ^ "Australia New Zealand Food Standards Code – Standard 2.4.2 – Edible Oil Spreads (PDF version)".
- ^ a b Gunstone, Frank D.; Fred B. Padley (13 May 1997). Lipid technologies and applications. CRC Press. p. 311. ISBN 978-0-8247-9838-3.
- ^ "What Type and Amount of Fat Do I Need?". Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "Spreadable fats (dairy and non-dairy): Definition, labelling and sale". Retrieved 5 January 2010.
- ^ Anon. "EU Margarine legislation". Website of the International Margarine Association of the Countries of Europe. IMACE. Archived from the original on 14 May 2015. Retrieved 11 November 2009.
- ^ Anon. "Code of Practice on Vitamin A&D fortification of fats and spreads" (PDF). IMACE Code of practice. IMACE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/287673/margarine-fortification-sum-resp-201403.pdf
- ^ Anon. "What's in a margarine spread?". Website of the Margarines and Spreads Association. MSA. Archived from the original on 28 October 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ O'Connor, Anahad (16 October 2007). "The Claim: Margarine Is Healthier Than Butter". New York Times. Retrieved 10 October 2009.
- ^ a b "Canada's conflicted relationship with margarine". CBC News Online. 18 March 2005. Retrieved 28 August 2007.
- ^ 
- ^ "Resolving Canada's conflicted relationship with margarine". CBC News Online. 9 July 2008. Retrieved 10 July 2008.
- ^ "Margarine Act 1895" (PDF). Government of New Zealand.
- ^ "Margarine Act 1908" (PDF). Government of New Zealand.
- ^ "DAIRY INDUSTRY AMENDMENT BILL : Report of Primary Production Committee". Hansard. New Zealand Parliament. 12 December 1989.
Okun, Mitchell (1986). Fair Play in the Marketplace: The First Battle for Pure Food and Drugs. Northern Illiinois University Press. pp. 254, 263, 266. ISBN 9780875801155.
- ^ Dupre R: "Margarine Regulation in North America Since 1886", Journal of Economic History, vol. 59, no. 2 (June 1999), pp. 353-371.
- ^ Strey, Gerry (Autumn 2001). "The "Oleo Wars": Wisconsin's Fight over the Demon Spread". Wisconsin Magazine of History. Vol. 85 no. 1. pp. 2–15.
- ^ "The Founders of the Cobb Institute of Archaeology". msstate.edu. Archived from the original on 7 May 2019. Retrieved 16 July 2010.
- ^ "21 U.S.C. 347 - Intrastate sales of colored oleomargarine". Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "Yellow margarine: I Can't Believe It's Not Legal!". AP / USA Today. 16 December 2008.
||Look up margarine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|