Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Russian: Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин [kɐˈlʲinʲɪn]; 19 November [O.S. 7 November] 1875 – 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was an Old Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet politician. He served as head of state of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946. From 1926, he was a member of the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
Born to a peasant family, Kalinin worked as a metal worker in Saint Petersburg and took part in the 1905 Russian Revolution as an early member of the Bolsheviks. During and after the October Revolution, he served as mayor of Petrograd (St. Petersburg). After the revolution, Kalinin became the head of the new Soviet state, as well as a member of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Politburo.
Kalinin remained the titular head of state of the Soviet Union after the rise of Joseph Stalin, but held little real power or influence. He retired in 1946 and died in the same year. The former East Prussian city of Königsberg was renamed Kaliningrad after him. The city of Tver was also known as Kalinin until 1990, one year before the fall of the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin was born on 19th November 1875 to a peasant family of ethnic Russian origin in the village of Verkhnyaya Troitsa (Верхняя Троица), Tver Governorate, Russia. He was the elder brother of Fedor Kalinin.
Kalinin finished his education at a local school in 1889 and worked for a time on a farm. He moved to Saint Petersburg, where he found employment as a metal worker in 1895. He also worked as a butler and then as a railway worker at Tbilisi depot, where he met Sergei Alliluyev, the father of Stalin's second wife.
In 1906, he married the ethnic Estonian Ekaterina Lorberg (Russian: Екатерина Ивановна Лорберг (Yekaterina Ivanovna Lorberg, 1882–1960).
Early political career
Kalinin working as a Farmer in his hometown in 1922
Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin joined the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) in 1898, the year of its foundation. He came to know Stalin through the Alliluyev family.
During the Russian Revolution of 1905, Kalinin worked for the Bolshevik party and on the staff of the Central Union of Metal Workers. He later became active on behalf of the RSDLP in Tiflis, Georgia (now Tbilisi), Reval, Estonia (now Tallinn), and Moscow. In April 1906 he served as a delegate at the 4th Congress of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party.
Kalinin was an early and devoted adherent of the Bolshevik faction of the RSDLP, headed by Vladimir Lenin. He was a delegate to the 1912 Bolshevik Party Conference held in Prague, where he was elected an alternate member of the governing Central Committee and sent to work inside Russia. He did not become a full member because he was suspected of being an Okhrana agent (the real agent was Roman Malinovsky, a full member).
Kalinin was arrested for his political activities in 1916 and freed during the February Revolution of 1917, which overthrew the tsarist state.
Kalinin joined the Petrograd Bolshevik committee and assisted in the organization of the party daily Pravda, now legalized by the new regime.
In April 1917 Kalinin, like many other Bolsheviks, advocated conditional support for the Provisional Government in cooperation with the Menshevik faction of the RSDLP, a position at odds with that of Lenin. He continued to oppose an armed uprising to overthrow the government of Alexander Kerensky throughout that summer.
In the elections held for the Petrograd City Duma in autumn 1917, Kalinin was chosen as mayor of the city, which he administered during and after the Bolshevik Revolution of 7 November.
In 1919, Kalinin was elected a member of the governing Central Committee of the Russian Communist Party as well as a candidate member of the Politburo. He was promoted to full membership on the Politburo in January 1926, a position which he retained until his death in 1946.
When Yakov Mikhailovich Sverdlov died in March 1919 (from influenza, a beating or poisoning; sources differ), Kalinin replaced him as President of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, the titular head of state of Soviet Russia. The name of this position was changed to Chairman of the Central Executive Committee of the USSR in 1922 and to Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet in 1938. Kalinin continued to hold the post without interruption until his retirement at the end of World War II.
In 1920, Kalinin attended the Second World Congress of the Communist International in Moscow as part of the Russian delegation. He was seated on the presidium rostrum and took an active part in the debates.
Kalinin was a factional ally of Stalin during the bitter struggle for power after the death of Lenin in 1924. He delivered a report on Lenin and the Comintern to the Fifth World Congress in 1924.
Kalinin was one of the comparatively few members of Stalin's inner circle springing from peasant origins. The lowly social origins were widely publicised in the official press, which habitually referred to Kalinin as the "All-Union headman" (Всесоюзный староста), a term hearkening to the village commune, in conjunction with his role as titular head of state. In practical terms, by the 1930s, Kalinin's role as a decision-maker in the Soviet government was nominal.
Although he was a member of the Politburo, the de facto executive branch of the Soviet Union, and nominally held the second-highest state post in the Soviet Union, Kalinin held little power or influence. His role was mostly limited to receiving diplomatic letters from abroad. Recalling him, future Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev said, "I don't know what practical work Kalinin carried out under Lenin. But under Stalin he was the nominal signatory of all decrees, while in reality he rarely took part in government business. Sometimes he was made a member of a commission, but people didn't take his opinion into account very much. It was embarrassing for us to see this; one simply felt sorry for Mikhail Ivanovich."
On 5 March 1940, six members of the Politburo—Stalin, Vyacheslav Molotov, Lazar Kaganovich, Kliment Voroshilov, Anastas Mikoyan, and Mikhail Kalinin—signed an order to execute 25,700 Polish "nationalists and counterrevolutionaries" kept at camps and prisons in occupied western Ukraine and Belarus, part of the Katyn massacre.
Kalinin was unable to protect even his own wife, Ekaterina Kalinina, who was critical of Stalin's policies and was arrested on 25 October 1938 on charges of being a "Trotskyist". Although her husband was the chair of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (1938–46), she was tortured in Lefortovo Prison and on 22 April 1939, she was sentenced to fifteen years of imprisonment in a labour camp. She was released shortly before her husband's death in 1946.
Death and legacy
Kalinin retired in 1946 and died of cancer on 3 June of that same year in Moscow. Kalinin was honoured with a major state funeral and was buried in the Kremlin Wall Necropolis.
Three large cities (Tver, Korolyov and Königsberg) were named or renamed in his honour. Only the last of those three, today known as Kaliningrad, has retained the name after the fall of the Soviet Union. Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave where Kaliningrad is located, has consequently also retained the name.
Kalinin coal mine was excavated in 1961 and named after M. I. Kalinin.
Kalinin Square and Kalinin Street which were named after Kalinin are located in Minsk, Belarus. Prospekt Kalinin in Dnipro, Ukraine was renamed Prospekt Serhiy Nigoyan in January 2015.
- ^ Agentstvo pechati "Novosti" (1975). Socialism: Theory and Practice. Novosti Press Agency. p. 73. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- ^ Calendar: Thirty Years of the Soviet State, 1917-1947. Foreign Languages Publishing House. 1947. Retrieved 19 November 2018.
- ^ Abdurakhman Avtorkhanov, Stalin and the Soviet Communist Party: A Study in the Technology of Power. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1959; p. 1.
- ^ a b c d e f g Branko Lazitch and Milorad M. Drachkovitch, Biographical Dictionary of the Comintern: New, Revised, and Expanded Edition. Stanford, CA: Hoover Institution Press, 1986; pp. 204-205.
- ^ Ernest A. Rappaport (1975). Anti-Judaism: a psychohistory. Perspective Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780960338207.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i Jackson, George; Devlin, Robert (eds.), Dictionary of the Russian Revolution. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1989; pp. 295-296.
- ^ *Kotkin, Stephen (2014). Stalin: Volume I: Paradoxes of Power, 1878-1928. Penguin. ISBN 978-1594203794.
- ^ Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeevich (2006). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev. Penn State Press. ISBN 0-271-02861-0.
- ^ Waksberg, Arkadi (21 January 2011). "From Hell to Heaven and forth" (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 5 October 2011.
- ^ Torchinov, V. A.; Leontiuk, A. M. Vokrug Stalina: Istoriko-biograficheskii spravochnik. ("Stalin's Circle: A Historico-Biographical Handbook") St. Petersburg: Philology Department of St. Petersburg State University, 2000; pp. 240-241.
- ^ Torchinov and Leontiuk refer to Kalinin in the 1930s as a "decorative figure." See Vokrug Stalina, p. 241.
- ^ Khrushchev, Sergei (Ed.). Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev: Statesman: 1953-1964. Pennsylvania State University Press. 2007. p. 488.
- ^ Brown, Archie (2009). The Rise and Fall of Communism. Ecco/HarperCollins. pp. 140. ISBN 978-0-06-113879-9.
- ^ Vadim J. Bristein (2001). The Perversion of Knowledge: The True Story of Soviet Science. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. p. 68.
- ^ Brent, Jonathan and Naumov, Vladimir P. in Stalin's Last Crime, John Murray (Publishers), London, 2003, page 231
- ^ (in Ukrainian) Dnipro municipality for the second time decided to rename Kalinin avenue to Sergey Nigoyan, (23 February 2018)