Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Нижегородская область, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. It has a population of 3,310,597 as of the 2010 Census. From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.
The oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area (including Dzerzhinsk, Bor and Kstovo) the biggest city is Arzamas. Near the town of Sarov there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery, one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov. The Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe. Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod.
The oblast covers an area of 76,900 square kilometers (29,700 sq mi), which is approximately equal to the entire area of the Benelux countries or Czech Republic. Agricultural land occupies 41% of this area; forests, 48%, lakes and rivers, 2%; and other lands, 9%. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast (N), Kirov Oblast (NE), the Mari El Republic (E), the Chuvash Republic (E), the Republic of Mordovia (S), Ryazan Oblast (SW), Vladimir Oblast (W), and Ivanovo Oblast (NW).
Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is not rich in natural resources, which are limited to commercial deposits of sand (including titanium-zirconium sands), clay, gypsum, peat, mineral salt, and timber.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: the first secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorki) CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority); the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power); and the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). After 1991, the CPSU lost all its power. The head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, was appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
The unique architectural construction—the 128-meter (420 ft) steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929—is located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River.
Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census); 3,524,028 (2002 Census); 3,714,322 (1989 Census).
According to the 2010 Census, ethnic Russians at 3,109,661 made up 95.1% of the oblast's population. Other ethnic groups included Tatars (44,103, or 1.4%), Mordva (19,138, or 0.6%), Ukrainians (17,657, or 0.5%), and various smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total. Additionally, 42,349 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
- Births (2011): 36,315 (11.0 per 1000)
- Deaths (2011): 54,184 (16.4 per 1000)
Deaths decreased by 8.5% in 2011 compared to 2010.
- Vital statistics for 2012
- Births: 38,881 (11.8 per 1000)
- Deaths: 52,771 (16.0 per 1000) 
- Total fertility rate:
2009 – 1.43 | 2010 – 1.42 | 2011 – 1.44 | 2012 – 1.55 | 2013 – 1.56 | 2014 – 1.59 | 2015 – 1.67 | 2016 – 1.65(e)
According to the Federal Migration Service, 20,450 foreign citizens were registered in the oblast in 2006. The actual number of foreigners residing in the oblast as of June 1, 2006 was estimated to be over 22,000.
According to a 2012 survey 69.2% of the population of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, and 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery). In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, and 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
The oblast ranks seventh in Russia in industrial output. Processing industries predominate in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700,000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates 83% of the regional GDP and accounts for 89% of all material expenditures. The leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry, woodworking, and paper industries. The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production.
The oblast has traditionally been attractive to investors. In 2002, Moody's rating agency confirmed a Caa1rating based on the region's long-term foreign currency liabilities.
The region maintains trade relations with many countries and has an export surplus. The largest volume of exports goes to Ukraine, Belarus, Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Belgium, and France. Imports come mainly from Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Austria, Netherlands, China, and the United States.
The stock market infrastructure is quite well developed in Nizhny Novgorod, and the exchange business is expanding. Companies and organizations registered in the region include 1153 joint-stock companies, 63 investment institutions, 34 commercial banks, 35 insurance companies, 1 voucher investment fund, 1 investment fund, 17 nongovernmental pension funds, 2 associations of professional stock market dealers, and 3 exchanges (stock, currency, and agricultural). The oblast is noted for having relatively highly developed market relations.
Today, the region needs serious partners interested in equitable, long-term, mutually beneficial partnerships.
There are 650+ industrial companies in the region, most of them engaged in the following sectors:
- Machine-building and engineering
- Chemical & petrochemical
- Fuel & energy
- Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
- Construction materials
- Wood and paper
- Food & food processing
- Medical & pharmaceuticals
- Printing & publishing.
- Peat extraction.
These key industries are supplemented by other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, trade, services, communications and transport.
Narrow gauge railways in the region:
- ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", No. 20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- ^ Article 1.3 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast states that the oblast may have its own anthem; however, as of 2014 no anthem has been adopted.
- ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 5.5
- ^ a b Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 21
- ^ Official website of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Valery Pavlinovich Shantsev, Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Archived October 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Путин отправил в отставку губернатора Нижегородской области". РБК. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (May 21, 2004). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
- ^ a b c d Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- ^ Official throughout the Russian Federation according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- ^ a b "Нижегородская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 января 1992 г.". ГИПП "Нижполиграф", Нижний Новгород, 1993, стр. 5
- ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. December 19, 2011. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- ^ "Росстат. Демография". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- ^ "Естественное движение населения в разрезе субъектов Российской Федерации". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- ^ "Каталог публикаций::Федеральная служба государственной статистики". www.gks.ru. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- ^ Дарья ВЛАДИМИРОВА, "Стройки под особым контролем", Rakurs, 30 June 2006
- ^ "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
- ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
- ^ a b Arena – Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- ^ "Nizhegorodskaya oblast, Russia guide". russiatrek.org. Retrieved March 19, 2018.
- ^ "Nizhny Novgorod News Network – NN.NN.RU". Government.nnov.ru. Retrieved August 13, 2012.
- Законодательное Собрание Нижегородской области. №219-З 30 декабря 2005 г. «Нижегородская область. Устав», в ред. Закона №91-З от 21 июня 2016 г «О поправке к статье 6 Устава Нижегородской области». Вступил в силу 28 января 2006 г. Опубликован: "Правовая среда" (приложение к газете "Нижегородские новости"), №3(676), 18 января 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. #219-Z December 30, 2005 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Charter, as amended by the Law #91-Z of June 21, 2016 On the Amendment to Article 6 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Effective as of January 28, 2006.).