A member of the Albanian military searches for opposing forces during a training mission in Hohenfels Training Area, Germany, December 7, 2018.
Operation Atlantic Resolve, though not a "named" operation, is ongoing efforts in response to Russia's actions in Ukraine; mainly the War in Donbas. It is funded under the European Deterrence Initiative. In the wake of Russia's 2014 intervention in Ukraine, the U.S. took several immediate steps to enhance the deterrence posture along the eastern flank of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), including augmenting the air, ground and naval presence in the region, and enhancing previously scheduled exercises. The U.S. is taking measures to enhance NATO military plans and defense capabilities and remains committed to maintaining a persistent presence in Central Europe and Eastern Europe. Atlantic Resolve rotations are overseen by a regionally aligned headquarters there.
On April 30, 2014 United States Army and Air Force military members were sent to Poland and the Baltic States of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia to conduct military exercises with partner nations in an immediate response to Russian illegal annexation of the Crimean Peninsula on March 18, 2014. This was on done on a bilateral basis, not as part of a larger NATO action. The force consisted of four companies of approximately: 150 soldiers from the 173rd BCT (Brigade Combat Team, airborne) out of Vicenza, Italy and supporting Air Force JTACs (Joint Terminal Attack Controller) from the 2nd ASOS (Air Support Operations Squadron) out of Vilseck, Germany. Troops were transported with assistance from the USAF 37th Airlift Squadron based out of Ramstein, Germany. The four companies were rotated out every ninety days through the end of 2014 when a more formal version of Operation Atlantic Resolve was put into place.
In March 2015, a U.S. Army spokesman in Wiesbaden announced that a convoy of armored fighting vehicles (including Strykers) would – after manoeuvres in Poland, Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania – return via road to their garrison at Vilseck. The road march started a week later.
The aerial assets are mostly deployed to Ämari Air Base, Graf Ignatievo Air Base, Mihail Kogălniceanu International Airport and Papa Air Base.
The first aerial units were the 159th Expeditionary Fighter Squadron (159th EFS) with McDonnell Douglas F-15C Eagle's and the 123d EFS with F-15C's and a single F-15D from April 2015 who stayed for six months.
This was added to by the following units:
- Task Force Spearhead, 3rd Battalion, 227th Aviation Regiment, 1st Air Cavalry Brigade between October 2015 and July 2016
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 10th Mountain Division between February 2017 and November 2017.
- 1st Air Cavalry Brigade between November 2017 and April 2018.
- 4th Combat Aviation Brigade between April 2018 and February 2019.
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, 1st Infantry Division between February and October 2019.
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 3rd Infantry Division from October 2019 to July 2020.
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 101st Airborne Division from July 2020 to March 2021.
- Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division, 1st Infantry Division from March 2021 to January 2022.
As of January 2017, there are 3,500 troops from the 3rd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 4th Infantry Division, 87 tanks and 144 Bradley fighting vehicles there. They initially gathered first in Poland, before spreading out across seven countries from Estonia to Bulgaria. The brigade is headquartered in Germany. An armored brigade will constantly rotate deployment every nine months. The equipment will be permanently based in Żagań in western Poland alongside a Polish armored division seemingly 34th Armoured Cavalry Brigade, 11th Armoured Cavalry Division. This unit has been replaced by 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division in September 2017. AS of May 2018, the rotational force has changed to 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. 1st Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division completed their rotation during October 2019 and were replaced by 2nd Armored Brigade Combat Team, 1st Cavalry Division. 2BCT, 1CAV was replaced in approximately November or December of 2020 by 1BCT, 1CAV. In June, 2021 it was announced that 1ABCT, 1ID would replace 1BCT, 1CAV in August of 2021.
On 4 September 2020, the US Army deployed the 2nd Battalion of the 69th Armor Regiment, part of the 2nd Brigade Combat Team, 3rd Division, for training in Pabradė. They deployed with M1 Abrams, Bradley Fighting Vehicle, other vehicles, and material.
82% of Czechs approved and supported the United States Army-NATO convoy that partook in Operation Dragoon Ride, according to an opinion poll that was conducted by the independent STEM agency in 2015.
A NATO deployment in the early January 2017 was welcomed by Polish officials who described it as a necessary response to Russian military exercises near its border and its military intervention in Ukraine and members of the public as the materiel crossed into south-western Poland from Germany. The same deployment sparked protests in Germany and prompted a critical reaction among the country’s centre-left political parties, but was defended by the country’s ruling Christian Democrat Party (CDU) coalition and German military officials. An article about the deployment that was published by the Donbas News International (DNI) agency and its subsequent circulation in the Western conspiracy-theory cybersphere and Russian mediasphere was cited as an example of the creation and spread of fake news. An editorial by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette cautioned anyone against using the deployment as a domestic political tool.
- ^ U.S. European Command. "OPERATION ATLANTIC RESOLVE" (PDF). www.defense.gov. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-05. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- ^ Atlantic Resolve builds readiness, increases interoperability and enhances the bonds between ally and partner militaries with multinational training events in Bulgaria, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland and Romania.
- ^ Shinkman, Paul D. (April 22, 2014). "U.S. Sends Airborne Infantry to Russian Front Door". US News & World Report. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- ^ Sgt. A.M. LaVey. "173rd paratroopers arrive in Poland, Baltics for unscheduled exercises". 173rd Airborne Brigade Public Affairs. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- ^ LaVey, A.M. (May 16, 2014). "173rd paratroopers arrive in Poland, Baltics for unscheduled exercises". US ARMY. 173rd Airborne Brigade Public Affairs. Retrieved 16 December 2020.
- ^ "Übung "Atlantic Resolve": US-Armee schickt Schützenpanzer durch östliche Nato-Mitgliedstaaten". SPIEGEL ONLINE. 16 March 2015.
- ^ "Solidaritätsaktion: Amerikaner starten "Straßenmarsch" durch Osteuropa". SPIEGEL ONLINE. 22 March 2015.
- ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. June 2015. p. 46.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. April 2015. p. 10.
- ^ a b c AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. November 2015. p. 15.
- ^ "74th EFS completes 'far-reaching' European deployment". USAF. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. May 2016. p. 12.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. October 2016. p. 95.
- ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. September 2016. p. 30.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. October 2016. p. 10.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. October 2017. p. 16.
- ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. February 2018. p. 14.
- ^ AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. May 2019. p. 14.
- ^ "Army taps Fort Hood aviation unit for Europe deployment". Stars and Stripes. March 5, 2019.
- ^ a b "1st Combat Aviation Brigade rotation to arrive in Europe". Stars and Stripes. March 5, 2019.
- ^ a b AirForces Monthly. Stamford, Lincolnshire, England: Key Publishing Ltd. December 2019. p. 17.
- ^ "3rd CAB Transfers Operation Atlantic Resolve Mission to 101st CAB". DVIDS. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- ^ "Farewell to Germany". DVIDS. Retrieved March 28, 2021.
- ^ Jon Sharman (7 January 2017). "Biggest shipment of American tanks since the Cold War lands in Germany". The Independent.
Howitzers and fighting vehicles will be joined by thousands of infantry troopers...unloaded in the German port of Bremerhaven...
- ^ Gnauck, Gerhard (13 January 2017). "US forces in Poland: Here to stay". DW. Retrieved 4 February 2017.
- ^ Vandiver, John (13 September 2017). "US New tank brigade arrives in Europe for mission in the east". Stars and Striples. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
- ^ Morris, Will (22 May 2018). "Fort Hood armored brigade arrives in Europe, ready to roll into Poland". Stars and Striples. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- ^ Spc. Joseph Knoch (October 23, 2019) 2/1 CD Convoy Marks the Fifth Iteration 2nd ABCT/1st Cavalry Division from Vlissingen, Netherlands, across Germany to Poland.
- ^ "JAV kariai šį rudenį vėl treniruosis Lietuvoje" [This Autumn, US Soldiers will train again in Lithuania] (in Lithuanian). 2 September 2020. Retrieved 2 September 2020.
- ^ "Dragouni odjeli. Američané zamávali v Rozvadově a vyrazili domů". Mladá fronta DNES (in Czech). iDNES. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- ^ Pearse, Damien. "Poland welcomes 3,500 US troops amid fears over Russia aggression". Sky News. Sky News.
- ^ MacAskill, Ewen (12 January 2017). "Russia says US troops arriving in Poland pose threat to its security". The Guardian. The Guardian.
- ^ "US tanks and troops in Poland a threat, Russia says". BBC. BBC. 12 January 2017.
- ^ Gera, Vanessa (14 January 2017). "'We waited for decades': Polish govt welcomes US troops". AP. AP. Archived from the original on 16 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- ^ ROGERS, JON (January 9, 2017). "'Tanks do not create peace' Germany fumes at huge build-up of tanks at Russian borders". Daily Express. Daily Express.
- ^ Scally, Derek (January 6, 2017). "Nato deployment begins against possible Russian aggression". The Irish Times.
- ^ Nimmo, Ben. "Three thousand fake tanks". Medium. Medium.
- ^ "Troop movements: Curious timing for U.S. and NATO border buildup". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 10, 2017.