Paleoconservatism is a political philosophy and variety of conservatism in the United States stressing American nationalism, Christian ethics, regionalism, and traditionalist conservatism. Paleoconservatism's concerns overlap with those of the Old Right that opposed the New Deal in the 1930s and 1940s as well as with paleolibertarianism and right-wing populism.
The terms neoconservative and paleoconservative were coined following the outbreak of the Vietnam War and a divide in American conservatism between the interventionists and the isolationists. Those in favor of the Vietnam War then became known as the neoconservatives (interventionists) as they marked a decisive split from the nationalist-isolationism that the traditionalist conservatives (isolationists) had subscribed to up until this point.
According to the international relations scholar Michael Foley, "paleoconservatives press for restrictions on immigration, a rollback of multicultural programs and large-scale demographic change, the decentralization of federal policy, the restoration of controls upon free trade, a greater emphasis upon economic nationalism and non-interventionism in the conduct of American foreign policy". Historian George Hawley states that although influenced by paleoconservatism, Donald Trump is not a paleoconservative, but rather a right-wing nationalist and populist. Hawley also states that paleoconservatism is today an exhausted force in American politics, but that for a time it represented the most serious right-wing threat to the mainstream conservative movement. Regardless how Trump himself is categorized, others regard the movement known as Trumpism as supported by, if not a rebranding of, paleoconservatism. From this view, the followers of the old right did not fade away so easily and continue to have significant influence in the Republican Party.
The prefix paleo derives from the Greek root παλαιός (palaiós), meaning "ancient" or "old". It is somewhat tongue-in-cheek and refers to the paleoconservatives' claim to represent a more historic, authentic conservative tradition than that found in neoconservatism. Adherents of paleoconservatism often describe themselves simply as "paleo". Rich Lowry of National Review claims the prefix "is designed to obscure the fact that it is a recent ideological creation of post-Cold War politics".
Samuel T. Francis, Thomas Fleming and some other paleoconservatives de-emphasized the conservative part of the paleoconservative label, saying that they do not want the status quo preserved. Fleming and Paul Gottfried called such thinking "stupid tenacity" and described it as "a series of trenches dug in defense of last year's revolution". Francis defined authentic conservatism as "the survival and enhancement of a particular people and its institutionalized cultural expressions".
Paleoconservatives support restrictions on immigration; decentralization; trade tariffs and protectionism; economic nationalism; isolationism and a return to traditional conservative ideals relating to gender, culture, and society.
Paleoconservatism differs from neoconservatism in opposing free trade and promoting republicanism in the United States. Paleoconservatives see neoconservatives as empire-builders and themselves as defenders of the republic.
Paleoconservatives tend to oppose abortion, gay marriage and LGBTQ rights.
Human nature, tradition and reason
Paleoconservatives believe that tradition is a form of reason, rather than a competing force. Mel Bradford wrote that certain questions are settled before any serious deliberation concerning a preferred course of conduct may begin. This ethic is based in a "culture of families, linked by friendship, common enemies, and common projects", so a good conservative keeps "a clear sense of what Southern grandmothers have always meant in admonishing children, 'we don't do that'".
Pat Buchanan argues that a good politician must "defend the moral order rooted in the old and New Testament and Natural Law"—and that "the deepest problems in our society are not economic or political, but moral".
According to historian Paul V. Murphy, paleoconservatives developed a focus on localism and states' rights. From the mid-1980s onward, Chronicles promoted a Southern traditionalist worldview focused on national identity, regional particularity, and skepticism of abstract theory and centralized power. According to Hague, Beirich, and Sebesta (2009), the antimodernism of the paleoconservative movement defined the neo-Confederate movement of the 1980s and 1990s. During this time, notable paleoconservative argued that desegregation, welfare, tolerance of gay rights, and church-state separation had been damaging to local communities, and that these issues had been imposed by federal legislation and think tanks. Paleoconservatives also claimed the Southern Agrarians as forebearers in this regard.
Influence on the alt-right
The alt-right movement emerged from the younger generation of paleoconservatives. The movement was founded in 2010 by noted neo-Nazi, former paleoconservative and American white nationalist Richard B. Spencer, who launched Alternative Right to disseminate his ideas after working as an editor for a number of paleoconservative outlets. The alt-right was influenced by paleoconservatism, the Dark Enlightenment, and the Nouvelle Droite.
Philosophers and scholars
Commentators and columnists
Notable organizations and outlets
Periodicals and websites
- ^ Rockwell, Lew. "The Case for Paleo-libertarianism" (PDF). Liberty (January 1990): 34–38. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 7, 2018. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
- ^ De Coster, Karen (December 2, 2003). "Paleolibertarianism". LewRockwell.com. Archived September 27, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved January 28, 2020.
- ^ Mudde, Cas (August 28, 2015). "The Trump phenomenon and the European populist radical right". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2020.
- ^ Drolet, Jean-Francois; Williams, Michael (2019). "The view from MARS: US paleoconservatism and ideological challenges to the liberal world order". International Journal. 74 (1): 18. doi:10.1177/0020702019834716. S2CID 151239862.
- ^ Morris, Edwin Kent (December 24, 2018). "Inversion, Paradox, and Liberal Disintegration: Towards a Conceptual Framework of Trumpism". New Political Science. 41 (1): 21. doi:10.1080/07393148.2018.1558037. S2CID 149978398.
- ^ Lowry, Richard (2005). "Reaganism v. Neo-Reaganism". The National Interest. No. 79. Center for the National Interest. pp. 35–41. ISSN 1938-1573. JSTOR 42897547. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ Foer, Franklin (July 22, 2002). "Home Bound". The New Republic. Archived from the original on October 1, 2009. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ Francis, Samuel (July 1992). "The Buchanan Revolution" (PDF). Chronicles. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 23, 2004. Retrieved January 27, 2018 – via SamFrancis.net.
- ^ Francis, Samuel (March 2004). "(Con)fusion on the Right". Chronicles. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ a b Matthews, Dillon. "The alt-right is more than warmed-over white supremacy. It's that, but way way weirder". Vox. Vox Media Inc. Retrieved August 4, 2019.
- ^ Larison, Daniel. "How Paleo and Fusionist Conservatism Differ". American Conservative Union Foundation. Archived from the original on February 5, 2004. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ Judis, John B. (October 3, 1999). "The Buchanan Doctrine". The New York Times. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- ^ Fleming, Thomas (September 8, 2005). "Ethics 01A.1: Gay Marriage, Democracy". Chronicles. Rockford, Illinois: Rockford Institute. Archived from the original on September 27, 2006. Retrieved August 27, 2006.
- ^ Bradford, M. E. (1990). The Reactionary Imperative: Essays Literary and Political. Peru, Illinois: Sherwood Sugden. p. 129. Quoted in Murphy 2001, p. 233.
- ^ Bradford, M. E. (1990). The Reactionary Imperative: Essays Literary and Political. Peru, Illinois: Sherwood Sugden. pp. 119, 121. Quoted in Murphy 2001, p. 233.
- ^ Pat Buchanan Responds To Lenora Fulani's Resignation – Buchanan Campaign Press Releases – theinternetbrigade – Official Web Site Archived October 5, 2006, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Hague, Euan; Beirich, Heidi; Sebesta, Edward H. (2009). Neo-Confederacy: A Critical Introduction. University of Texas Press. pp. 25–27. ISBN 9780292779211. Retrieved December 3, 2018.
- ^ CQ Researcher (2018). Issues for Debate in American Public Policy: Selections from CQ Researcher. SAGE Publications. ISBN 978-1-5443-0395-6.
One such group, called "paleoconservatives," was the early political home of Spencer.
- ^ Robertson, Derek. "The Canadian Psychologist Beating American Pundits at Their Own Game". Politico. Capitol News Company. Retrieved August 6, 2019.
- ^ "'Paleoconservatives' Decry Immigration". Southern Poverty Law Center.
- ^ Continetti, Matthew (June 1, 2019). "Making Sense of the New American Right". National Review. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- ^ "Re: Paleocons On Immigration". March 19, 2003.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (May 6, 2016). "Paleoconservatism, the movement that explains Donald Trump, explained". Vox.
- ^ Lorber, Ben (January 15, 2021). "America First Is Inevitable". Political Research Associates. Retrieved May 24, 2021.
- ^ "InfoWars' Alex Jones Stole Over 1,000 Articles From Kremlin-Backed Russia Today". The New York Observer. November 9, 2017.
- ^ Dish, The Daily (February 18, 2008). "Family Besmirch Council". The Atlantic.
- ^ Frum, David (March 25, 2003). "Unpatriotic Conservatives". National Review. Retrieved August 3, 2020.
- ^ "The American Conservative Crackup". May 1, 2007.
- ^ "An intellectual history of Trumpism". Politico. December 12, 2016.
- ^ Matthews, Dylan (May 6, 2016). "Paleoconservatism, the movement that explains Donald Trump, explained". Vox. Retrieved August 23, 2020.
- ^ "Ron Unz: Controversial Writer and Funder of Anti-israel Activists". Anti-Defamation League.
- ^ "Why I Love Taki's Magazine". Charleston City Paper. May 30, 2008.
- Ansell, Amy Elizabeth (1998). Unraveling the Right: The New Conservatism in American Thought and Politics. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 978-0-8133-3146-1.
- Bradford, M. E. (1994) . A Better Guide than Reason: Federalists and Anti-Federalists. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-1601-4.
- Buchanan, Patrick J. (2006). State of Emergency: The Third World Invasion and Conquest of America. New York: Thomas Dunne Books. ISBN 978-0-312-37436-5.
- Burke, Edmund (1790). Reflections on the Revolution in France. London: J. Dodlsey. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Clark, Barry (2016). Political Economy: A Comparative Approach (3rd ed.). Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-1-4408-4326-6.
- Dueck, Colin (2010). Hard Line: The Republican Party and U.S. Foreign Policy Since World War II. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-14182-4.
- Edwards, Lee (2003). Educating for Liberty: The First Half-Century of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute. Washington: Regnery Publishing. ISBN 978-0-89526-093-2.
- Francis, Samuel T. (1994). Beautiful Losers: Essays on the Failure of American Conservatism. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Foley, Michael (2007). American Credo: The Place of Ideas in US Politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
- Gottfried, Paul (1993) . The Conservative Movement (rev. ed.). Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9749-7.
- ——— (1999). After Liberalism: Mass Democracy in the Managerial State. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press (published 2001). ISBN 978-1-4008-2289-8.
- ——— (2006). "Paleoconservatism". In Frohnen, Bruce; Beer, Jeremy; Nelson, Jeffrey O. (eds.). American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. pp. 651–652. ISBN 978-1-61017-103-8.
- Gottfried, Paul; Fleming, Thomas (1988). The Conservative Movement. Boston, Massachusetts: Twayne Publishers. ISBN 978-0-8057-9723-7.
- Hawley, George (2017). Making Sense of the Alt-Right. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-54600-3.
- Hitchens, Peter (1999). The Abolition of Britain: From Lady Chatterley to Tony Blair. London: Quartet Books.
- Kirk, Russell (1986). The Conservative Mind: From Burke to Eliot (7th ed.). Washington: Regnery Publishing (published 2001). pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-89526-171-7.
- ——— (2014) . Eliot and His Age: T. S. Eliot's Moral Imagination in the Twentieth Century. Open Road Integrated Media. ISBN 978-1-4976-3573-9.
- Kopff, E. Christopher (2006). "Buchanan, Patrick J. (1938–)". In Frohnen, Bruce; Beer, Jeremy; Nelson, Jeffrey O. (eds.). American Conservatism: An Encyclopedia. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. pp. 96–97. ISBN 978-1-61017-103-8.
- Machnik, Barbara (2015). "Paleoconservatism and the Issue of Immigration and Multiculturalism". Ad Americam. 16: 29–40. ISSN 1896-9461.
- McDonald, W. Wesley (1999). "Russell Kirk and the Prospects for Conservatism" (PDF). Humanitas. 12 (1): 56–76. ISSN 1066-7210. Retrieved January 26, 2018.
- ——— (2004). Russell Kirk and the Age of Ideology. Columbia, Missouri: University of Missouri Press. ISBN 978-0-8262-6258-5.
- Murphy, Paul V. (2001). The Rebuke of History: The Southern Agrarians and American Conservative Thought. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 978-0-8078-4960-6.
- Nash, George H. (2006). The Conservative Intellectual Movement in America Since 1945. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books. ISBN 978-1-933859-12-5.
- Newman, Joshua I.; Giardina, Michael D. (2011). Sport, Spectacle, and NASCAR Nation: Consumption and the Cultural Politics of Neoliberalism. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/9780230338081. ISBN 978-0-230-33808-1.
- Raimondo, Justin (1993). Reclaiming the American Right: The Lost Legacy of the Conservative Movement. Burlingame, California: Center for Libertarian Studies. ISBN 978-1-883959-00-5.
- Röpke, Wilhelm (1998). A Humane Economy: The Social Framework of the Free Market. Wilmington, Delaware: ISI Books.
- Russello, Gerald J. (2004). "Russell Kirk and Territorial Democracy". Publius. 34 (4): 109–124. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.pubjof.a005044. ISSN 1747-7107. JSTOR 20184928.
- Ryn, Claes G. (1998). "Defining Historicism". Humanitas. 11 (2): 86–101. ISSN 1066-7210. Retrieved January 27, 2018.
- Schneider, Gregory L. (2009). The Conservative Century: From Reaction to Revolution. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 978-0-7425-4285-3.
- Scotchie, Joseph (2004) . Revolt from the Heartland: The Struggle for an Authentic Conservatism. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4128-3324-0.
- ——— (2017) . "Introduction: Paleoconservatism as the Opposition Party". In Scotchie, Joseph (ed.). The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. pp. 1–15. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.
- ——— , ed. (2017) . The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.
- Watson, George (1985). The Idea of Liberalism: Studies for a New Map of Politics. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-38754-2.
- Williamson, Chilton (2004). The Conservative Bookshelf: Essential Works That Impact Today's Conservative Thinkers.
- Wilson, Clyde (2017) . "Restoring the Republic". In Scotchie, Joseph (ed.). The Paleoconservatives: New Voices of the Old Right. London: Routledge. pp. 179–188. ISBN 978-1-351-47773-4.
- Woltermann, Chris (1993). "What Is Paleoconservatism?". Telos. 1993 (97): 9–20. doi:10.3817/0993097009. ISSN 1940-459X. S2CID 147206456.