In politics, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a homeland by some community.
- historicist – that partition is inevitable, or already in progress
- last resort – that partition should be pursued to avoid the worst outcomes (genocide or large-scale ethnic expulsion), if all other means fail
- cost–benefit – that partition offers a better prospect of conflict reduction than the if existing borders are not changed
- better tomorrow – that partition will reduce current violence and conflict, and that the new more homogenized states will be more stable
- rigorous end – heterogeneity leads to problems, hence homogeneous states should be the goal of any policy
- national territorial unity will be lost
- bi-nationalism and multi-nationalism are not undesirable
- the impossibility of a just partition
- difficult in deciding how the new border(s) will be drawn
- the likelihood of disorder and violence
- partitioning alone does not lead to the desired homogenization
- security issues arising within the borders of the new states
Daniel Posner has argued that partitions of diverse communities into homogenous communities is unlikely to solve problems of communal conflict, as the boundary changes will alter the actors' incentives and give rise to new cleavages. For example, while the Muslim and Hindu cleavages might have been the most salient amid the Indian independence movement, the creation of a religiously homogenous Hindu state (India) and a religiously homogeneous Muslim state (Pakistan) created new social cleavages on lines other than religion in both of those states. Posner writes that relatively homogenous countries can be more violence-prone than countries with a large number of evenly matched ethnic groups.
Notable examples are: (See Category:Partition)
- Partition of Africa (Scramble for Africa), between 1881 and 1914 under the General Act of the Berlin Conference.
- Partition, multiple times, of the Roman Empire into the Eastern Roman Empire and the Western Roman Empire, following the Crisis of the Third Century.
- Partition of Prussia by the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466. creating Royal Prussia, and Duchy of Prussia in 1525
- Partition of Catalonia by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659: Northern Catalan territories (Roussillon) were given to France by Spain.
- In the Treaty of Versailles (1757), France agreed upon the partition of Prussia
- Partition of the U.S. state of Virginia in 1863 after Virginia joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, 50 northwestern counties rejoined the Union as the State of West Virginia.
- German occupation of Czechoslovakia: The Sudetenland was ceded to Nazi Germany under the Munich Agreement of 1938, and the country was later divided into the German-administered Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the nominally-independent Slovak Republic. Later reunified at the end of World War II.
- Three Partitions of Luxembourg, the last of which in 1839, divided Luxembourg between France, Prussia, Belgium, and the independent Grand Duchy of Luxembourg.
- Three Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, which led to the complete annihilation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
- 1905 Partition of Bengal and 1947 Partition of Bengal.
- Partition of Macedonia by the Treaty of Bucharest after the Second Balkan War.
- Partition of Tyrol by the London Pact of 1915 ratified during World War I.
- Partition of the German Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles.
- Partition of Prussia in 1919.
- Partition of the Ottoman Empire.
- Partition of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon.
- Partition of Ireland in 1920 into the independent Irish Free State and Northern Ireland.
- Treaty of Kars of 1921, which partitioned Ottoman Armenia between Turkey and the Soviet Union (Western and Eastern Armenia).
- Partition of Allied-occupied Germany and Berlin after World War II
- Partition of Korea in 1945 into American and Soviet zones of occupation.
- 1947 UN Partition Plan for British Mandate of Palestine; this partition was abortive , resulting only in a Jewish independent state (Israel), while the territories of the proposed Arab state were occupied by Israel, Transjordan and Egypt.
- Partition of India (colonial British India) in 1947 into the independent dominions (later republics) of India and Pakistan (which included modern-day Bangladesh).
- Partition of Korea in 1953 between North Korea and South Korea after the Korean War.
- Partition of Punjab in 1966 into the states of Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh.
- Partition of Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War.
- Partition of Vietnam in 1954 between North Vietnam and South Vietnam under the Geneva Accord after the First Indochina War. Later reunified after the Vietnam War in 1975.
- The hypothetical partition of the Canadian province of Quebec.
- Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s.
- Partition of Czechoslovakia in 1993 into the independent entities of the Czech Republic and Slovakia.
- Partition of Cyprus in 1974 (de facto), into Greek-majority Cyprus and Turkish-majority Northern Cyprus after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
- Possible Partition of Kosovo after disputed independence (partition from Serbia) in 2008. See also Kosovo independence precedent.
- Partition of China (See 瓜分中國), between the People's Republic of China on the Mainland and the Republic of China on Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War.
- Partition of Sudan into two entities in 2011, the Muslim-majority Sudan and the Christian-majority South Sudan.
- ^ a b c Brendan O'Leary, DEBATING PARTITION: JUSTIFICATIONS AND CRITIQUES
- ^ a b Posner, Daniel N. (26 September 2017). "When and why do some social cleavages become politically salient rather than others?". Ethnic and Racial Studies. 40 (12): 2001–2019. doi:10.1080/01419870.2017.1277033. ISSN 0141-9870.
- ^ Posner, Daniel N. (2003). "The Colonial Origins of Ethnic Cleavages: The Case of Linguistic Divisions in Zambia". Comparative Politics. 35 (2): 127–146. doi:10.2307/4150148. ISSN 0010-4159.
- ^ Norman Davies. God's Playground , p. 28
- ^ Stephen R. Turnbull. Tannenberg 1410: Disaster for the Teutonic Knights p. 89
- ^ Millot, Claude François Xavier. Elements of General History: Ancient and Modern p. 227
- ^ Arthur Hassall. The Balance of Power, 1715–1789, p. 242
- ^ "Today in History – June 20: Mountaineers Always Freemen". Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- ^ "A State of Convenience: The Creation of West Virginia, Chapter Twelve, Reorganized Government of Virginia Approves Separation". Wvculture.org. West Virginia Division of Culture and History. Retrieved 25 March 2018.
- ^ "The Polish Occupation. Czechoslovakia was, of course, mutilated not only by Germany. Poland and Hungary also each asked for their share." Hubert Ripka Munich, Before and After: A Fully Documented Czechoslovak Account 
- ^ Davies, p. 101
- ^ Samuel Leonard Sharp: Poland, White Eagle on a Red Field
- ^ Norman Davies: God's Playground 
- ^ Debates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada