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Partizansk (Russian: Партиза́нск) is a town in Primorsky Krai, Russia, located on a spur of the Sikhote-Alin Mountains, about 170 kilometers (110 mi) east of Vladivostok, the administrative center of the krai. Population: 38,659 (2010 Census); 43,670 (2002 Census); 49,546 (1989 Census).
The town was formerly known as Suchan (Chinese: 蘇城; pinyin: Sūchéng), but its Russian name was changed to Partizansk in 1972 during a general campaign of cleansing the Chinese toponyms in Outer Manchuria.
A number of creeks flow through the town into the nearby Partizanskaya River, previously known as the Suchan.
Partizansk has a four-season humid continental climate. Its climate contains vast temperature differences between seasons, in spite of its relatively low latitude and position near the Pacific Ocean. It has slightly warmer summers than Vladivostok due to its inland position, whereas winters are similar in both locations, largely but not completely unaffected by any maritime moderation. The cold temperatures for the latitude are due to the Siberian High's influence. The climate features wet and humid summers as well as dry and snow-light winters.
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In the late 19th century, the Vladivostok-based Russian Pacific Fleet was in deep need of a source of coal. The Department of Mines sent a geological expedition to the area south of Ussuriysk, working there from 1888 to 1893. Coal was found, which could be mined and sent to Nakhodka for the needs of the Fleet. In 1896, the Department of Mines made a large order for coal from the Suchan River area, and a settlement for miners was founded. The settlement was originally named Suchansky Rudnik, meaning mining pit of Suchan.
Later in 1896, more detailed prospecting was organized in Suchan, and commercial operations started at around that time. Suchan miners were living in dug-outs, cabins, and tents, and living conditions were awful. Only in 1900, when forty-six highly qualified miners arrived, construction of the mine #1 and of ten houses started. Government-owned coal mines were also established at that time. The first migrants started to move to Suchan.
The government often neglected to maintain good living conditions for Suchan workers. For the period of 1896–1922, only one two-story house was built. Suchan itself was just a group of several badly planned mine settlements. In 1905 and 1906, state schools were opened and a hospital for fifty people was built.
In the period of 1905–1914, several new mines were opened in Suchan. Wooden barracks and individual houses also appeared. Construction was carried out without proper planning, with each artel building a barrack for its workers. Some of those buildings remain intact to the present day. The founders of Suchansky Rudnik had not carried out much work up to 1914. After the beginning of World War I, development completely stopped. Many workers were called up for military service, extraction of coal reduced greatly, and construction works were cut down. Difficult years of need and hardship started.
In 1917, there were eleven mines which annually extracted up to 300,000 tons of coal. In 1918–1922, during the Russian Civil War, the supporters of the Bolsheviks conducted an active partisan struggle in the region. After the establishment of Soviet authority in Primorye, coal remained the region's main production.
After 1922, restoration of old mines and building of new ones started. Spread settlements merged into one large locality. Construction of multi-story buildings began. At this time great attention was paid to cultural development of the settlement. In 1917, the People's House was built, which later transformed into a club of miners. It became a cultural center of the settlement. In 1926, a club for 350 people was built near mine #10. In 1932, a club for 200 people near mine #20 and for 250 people at timber plant were built. In 1933, the largest Palace of Culture in Primorye with a hall for 1,200 people started functioning.
Town status was granted in 1932, and the name was shortened to Suchan. Soon after that Suchan was renamed Gamarnik (Гама́рник), after revolutionary commissar Yan Gamarnik; however, the name reverted to Suchan after Gamarnik's suicide (due to possible arrest during the Great Purge) in 1937.
The town was given its present name in 1972, when the cleansing of Chinese names in Primorsky Krai took place. The nearby Suchan River, from which the town had taken its name, was renamed the Partizanskaya.
Administrative and municipal status
Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eleven rural localities, incorporated as Partizansk Town Under Krai Jurisdiction—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, Partizansk Town Under Krai Jurisdiction is incorporated as Partizansky Urban Okrug.
Economy and infrastructure
The economy of the town and its surrounding area remains largely reliant on coal mining; however, the industry is currently in decline, with the previous coal reserves largely exhausted. Previous machine-building, chemical and pharmaceutical works have also been closed.
Timber production has grown in importance in recent years. Light industry also prospers, with a garment factory, a tannery, a food-processing plant, and a brewery currently operating.
The 1970s witnessed some great effort in modernizing the town's industrial sector, crowned with building a power station which was later named after the town. Thirty years later the Partizansk Power Station was renovated and a new generator was installed to boost the output. Despite being one of the less important stations in the energy grid of the krai, especially with the reference to its minor share in the krai's energy output, Partizansk Power Station has a vital role in supplying with electricity the town and the close vicinity.
The town lies on the branch of the Trans-Siberian Railway leading to Nakhodka; this section of the railroad was completed in 1935.
A coal deposit in Oleny Klyuch (near mine #1) was for the first time mentioned by Vasily Margaritov, a member of the Geographic Society of Amur Krai. This place is now called "The First Coal" (as it was the first mine in the area). Today, the mine is no longer in operation, and is commemorated with a cast-iron sign placed there in 1932. The sign contains the following text: "In 1883 the first coal was found here. Here the mine begins."
The nearby area also includes a number of cliffs and waterfalls.
- ^ a b c d e Law #161-KZ
- ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
- ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
- ^ a b c Law #165-KZ
- ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
- ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
- ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
- ^ "Partizansk climate summary". Weatherbase. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- ^ "Partizansk temperature averages". Weatherbase. Retrieved May 18, 2016.
- Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №161-КЗ от 14 ноября 2001 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края», в ред. Закона №673-КЗ от 6 октября 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Приморского края "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Приморского края"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красное знамя Приморья", №69 (119), 29 ноября 2001 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #161-KZ of November 14, 2001 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai, as amended by the Law #673-KZ of October 6, 2015 On Amending the Law of Primorsky Krai "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Primorsky Krai". Effective as of the official publication date.).
- Законодательное Собрание Приморского края. Закон №165-КЗ от 11 ноября 2004 г. «О Партизанском городском округе», в ред. Закона №123-КЗ от 13 ноября 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Приморского края в связи с изменением наименований некоторых сельских населённых пунктов Приморского края». Вступил в силу 1 января 2005 г.. Опубликован: "Ведомости Законодательного Собрания Приморского края", №73, 12 ноября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Primorsky Krai. Law #165-KZ of November 11, 2004 On Partizansky Urban Okrug, as amended by the Law #123-KZ of November 13, 2012 On Amending Various Legislative Acts of Primorsky Krai Due to the Changes of Names of Some Rural Inhabited Localities of Primorsky Krai. Effective as of January 1, 2005.).