The Austria Portal
Topographical map of Austria
(, ; German
: Österreich [ˈøːstɐʁaɪç] (listen)
), officially the Republic of Austria
(German: Republik Österreich [ʁepuˈbliːk ˈʔøːstɐʁaɪç] (listen)
), is a landlocked East Alpine
country in the southern part of Central Europe
. It is composed of nine federated states
), one of which is Vienna
, Austria's capital and largest city. It is bordered by Germany
to the northwest, the Czech Republic
to the north, Slovakia
to the northeast, Hungary
to the east, Slovenia
to the south, and Switzerland
to the west. Austria occupies an area of 83,879 km2
(32,386 sq mi) and has a population of nearly 9 million people
. While Austrian German
is the country's official language
, many Austrians communicate informally in a variety of Bavarian dialects
Austria initially emerged as a margraviate around 976 and developed into a duchy and archduchy. In the 16th century, Austria started serving as the heart of the Habsburg Monarchy and the junior branch of the House of Habsburg – one of the most influential royal dynasties in history. As an archduchy, it was a major component and administrative centre of the Holy Roman Empire. Early in the 19th century, Austria established its own empire, which became a great power and the leading force of the German Confederation, but pursued its own course independently of the other German states following its defeat in the Austro-Prussian War in 1866. In 1867, in compromise with Hungary, the Austria-Hungary Dual Monarchy was established.
Austria was involved in World War I under Emperor Franz Joseph following the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, the presumptive successor to the Austro-Hungarian throne. After the defeat and the dissolution of the Monarchy, the Republic of German-Austria was proclaimed with the intent of union with Germany, but the Allied Powers did not support the new state and it remained unrecognized. In 1919 the First Austrian Republic became the legal successor of Austria. In 1938, the Austrian-born Adolf Hitler, who became the Chancellor of the German Reich, achieved the annexation of Austria by the Anschluss. Following the defeat of Nazi Germany in 1945 and an extended period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as a sovereign and self-governing democratic nation known as the Second Republic.
Austria is a parliamentary representative democracy with a directly elected Federal President as head of state and a Chancellor as head of the federal government. Major urban areas of Austria include Vienna, Graz, Linz, Salzburg and Innsbruck. Austria is consistently ranked in the top 20 richest countries in the world by GDP per capita terms. The country has achieved a high standard of living and in 2018 was ranked 20th in the world for its Human Development Index. Vienna consistently ranks in the top internationally on quality-of-life indicators.
The Second Republic declared
its perpetual neutrality
in foreign political affairs in 1955. Austria has been a member of the United Nations since 1955 and joined the European Union
in 1995. It plays host to the OSCE
and is a founding member of the OECD
. Austria also signed the Schengen Agreement
in 1995, and adopted the euro
currency in 1999. (Full article...
Selected article -
The Vienna Circle (German: Wiener Kreis) was an association of philosophers gathered around the University of Vienna in 1922, chaired by Moritz Schlick, also known as the Ernst Mach Society (Verein Ernst Mach) in honour of Ernst Mach. Among its members were Gustav Bergmann, Rudolf Carnap, Philipp Frank, Hans Hahn, Tscha Hung, Victor Kraft, Karl Menger, Richard von Mises, Marcel Natkin, Otto Neurath, Olga Hahn-Neurath, Theodor Radakovic, Rose Rand and Friedrich Waismann.
Herbert Feigl and Kurt Gödel were two eminent students at the University of Vienna at this time. They were allowed to participate in the meetings, but were not members of the Vienna Circle. Members of the Vienna Circle had a common attitude towards philosophy, consisting of an applied logical positivism drawn from Ludwig Wittgenstein, whose Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus formed the basis for the group's philosophy (although Wittgenstein himself insisted that logical positivism was a gross misreading of his thinking, and took to reading poetry during meetings of the Vienna Circle). The Vienna Circle's influence on 20th century philosophy was immense, and much later work, such as that of Willard Van Orman Quine, was in response to the Circle's thought.
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Selected biography -
Empress Zita of Austria, Queen of Hungary (in 1916)
Zita of Bourbon-Parma (Zita Maria delle Grazie Adelgonda Micaela Raffaela Gabriella Giuseppina Antonia Luisa Agnese; 9 May 1892 – 14 March 1989) was the wife of Emperor Charles of Austria. As such, she was the last Empress of Austria, Queen of Hungary, and Queen of Bohemia.
Born as the seventeenth child of the dispossessed Robert I, Duke of Parma, Princess Zita married the then Archduke Charles of Austria in 1911. Charles became heir presumptive to the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria in 1914 after the assassination of his uncle Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, and acceded to the throne in 1916 after the old emperor's death.
After the end of World War I in 1918, the Habsburgs were deposed when the new countries of Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs were formed. Charles and Zita left for exile in Switzerland, and later Madeira where Charles died in 1922. After her husband's death, Zita and her son Otto served as the symbols of unity for the exiled dynasty. A devout Catholic, she raised a large family after being widowed at the age of 29, and remained faithful to the memory of her husband for the rest of her long life.
She died at the age 96 years and was given a large funeral at St. Stephen's Cathedral and laid to rest in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna.
The following are images from various Austria-related articles on Wikipedia.
Culture of Austria)
Austria3 - from left: Georg Danzer, Rainhard Fendrich, Wolfgang Ambros. (from
Culture of Austria)
Golden Hall, from which the Vienna New Year's concert is broadcast (from
Culture of Austria)
Wiener Sängerknaben (Vienna Boys' Chorus) during a concert at the Wiener Musikverein (from
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