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Italy (Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica Italiana [reˈpubːlika itaˈljaːna]), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps and several islands surrounding it. Italy is located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, in Southern Europe, and is also often considered part of Western Europe. A unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and largest city, the country covers a total area of 301,340 km2 (116,350 sq mi) and shares land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Italy has a territorial enclave in Switzerland (Campione) and a maritime exclave in Tunisian waters (Lampedusa). With around 60 million inhabitants, Italy is the third-most populous member state of the European Union.
Due to its central geographic location in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean, Italy has historically been home to myriad peoples and cultures. In addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name, beginning from the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians founded colonies mostly in insular Italy, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, while Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy respectively. An Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom in the 8th century BC, which eventually became a republic with a government of the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic initially conquered and assimilated its neighbours on the Italian peninsula, eventually expanding and conquering parts of Europe, North Africa and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire emerged as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin and became a leading cultural, political and religious centre, inaugurating the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature developed. (Full article...)
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The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced but politically divided among several states, became the main battleground for European supremacy. The conflicts involved the major powers of Italy and Europe, in a series of events that followed the end of the 40-year long Peace of Lodi agreed in 1454 with the formation of the Italic League.
The collapse of the alliance in the 1490s left Italy open to the ambitions of Charles VIII of France
, who invaded the Kingdom of Naples
in 1494 on the ground of a dynastic claim
. The French were however forced to leave Naples after the Republic of Venice
formed an alliance
with Maximilian I of Austria
and Ferdinand V of Spain
. In 1499, Louis XII of France
initiated a second campaign against Naples by first taking control of the Duchy of Milan
thanks to Cesare Borgia
, son of Pope Alexander VI
for Louis XII, marking an open alliance between the Papacy and France. The second war ended with the treaties of Blois and Lyon in 1504: Emperor Maximilian invested Louis XII with the Duchy of Milan, while Ferdinand of Spain (already ruler of Sicily and Sardinia) captured the Kingdom of Naples from the French. (Full article...
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Selected fare or cuisine -
Various types of Italian wines
Italian wine is produced in every region of Italy, home to some of the oldest wine-producing regions in the world. Italy is the world's largest producer of wine, with an area of 702,000 hectares (1,730,000 acres) under vineyard cultivation, and contributing a 2013–2017 annual average of 48.3 million hl of wine. In 2018 Italy accounted for 19 percent of global production, ahead of France (17 percent) and Spain (15 percent). Italian wine is both exported around the world and popular domestically among Italians, who consume an average of 42 litres per capita, ranking fifth in world wine consumption.
settlers produced wine in Italy before the Romans
planted their own vineyards
in the 2nd century AD. The Romans greatly increased Italy's area under vine using efficient viticultural
methods, and pioneered large-scale production and storage
techniques such as barrel
. (Full article...
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General images -
The following are images from various Italy-related articles on Wikipedia.
Culture of Italy)
Sergio Mattarella, President of the Italian Republic, elected on 3 February 2015. (from
Colosseum, originally known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. (from Culture of Italy)
espresso comes from the Italian esprimere, which means "to express," and refers to the process by which hot water is forced under pressure through ground coffee. (from Culture of Italy)
History of Italy)
Exhausted nurse takes a break in an Italian hospital during the Covid-19 pandemic. (from
Areas annexed to Italy in 1920 and remained Italian even after 1947
Areas annexed to Italy in 1920, passed to the Free Territory of Trieste in 1947 with the Paris treaties and definitively assigned to Yugoslavia in 1975 with the Osimo treaty
(from History of Italy
Changes to the Italian eastern border from 1920 to 1975.
Division of Yugoslavia after its invasion by the
Roman Forum, the commercial, cultural, and political center of the city and the Republic which housed the various offices and meeting places of the government. (from History of Italy)
Metropolitan Italy and dependent territories;
Claimed territories to be annexed;
Territories to be transformed into client states. Albania
, which was a client state, was considered a territory to be annexed. (from History of Italy
Ambitions of fascist Italy in Europe in 1936.
Fiume cheering D'Annunzio and his Legionari, September 1919. At the time, Fiume had 22,488 (62% of the population) Italians in a total population of 35,839 inhabitants. (from History of Italy)
groupings in Southern Italy.
(from History of Italy
Ancient Greek colonies and their
Culture of Italy)
the EUR in Rome is a perfect example of modern Italian architecture (from
Secondary, widely spoken or understood.
Understood by some due to former colonisation.
(from Culture of Italy