Puntland (Somali: Puntland, Arabic: أرض البنط, Italian: Terra di Punt or Paese di Punt), officially the Puntland State of Somalia (Somali: Dowladda Federalkaa ee Puntland, Arabic: ولاية أرض البنط الصومالية), is a Federal Member State in northeastern Somalia. The capital city is the city of Garoowe in the Nugal province, and its leaders declared the territory an autonomous state in 1998.
Puntland is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Guardafui Channel in the northeast, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the central Galmudug region in the south, and Ethiopia in the southwest.There are several major geographical apexes in Puntland, including the Cape Guardafui which forms the tip of the Horn of Africa, Ras Hafun the easternmost place on the entire African continent, and the beginning of the Karkaar mountain range. It also has the northernmost major city in Somalia, Bosaso, located at a line of latitude higher than 11° north.
The name "Puntland" is derived from the Land of Punt mentioned in ancient Egyptian sources, although the exact location of the fabled territory is still a mystery. Many studies suggest that the Land of Punt was located in present-day Somalia, whereas others propose that it was situated elsewhere.
The Osman Mahamuud clan was among powerful clans in northeastern region.
Boqor Osman was one of the prominent Darood clan chiefs who ruled the ancient towns of Bosaso, Alula, Bargaal and Hafun and subsequently emerged as a powerful traditional elder who fully controlled areas under his rule.
The Majeerteen Sultanate (Migiurtinia) was founded in the mid-18th century. It rose to prominence the following century, under the reign of the resourceful Boqor (King) Osman Mahamuud. Centred in Aluula, it controlled much of northern and central Somalia in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The polity maintained a robust trading network, entered into treaties with foreign powers, and exerted strong centralized authority on the domestic front.
The Majeerteen Sultanate was nearly destroyed in the mid-1800s by a power struggle between Boqor Osman and his ambitious cousin, Yusuf Ali Kenadid. After almost five years of battle, the young upstart was finally forced into exile in Yemen. A decade later, in the 1870s, Kenadid returned from the Arabian Peninsula with a band of Hadhrami musketeers and a group of devoted lieutenants. With their assistance, he managed to overpower the local clans and establish the Sultanate of Hobyo in 1878.
In late 1889, Boqor Osman entered into a treaty with Italy, making his realm an Italian protectorate. His rival Sultan Kenadid had signed a similar agreement vis-a-vis his own Sultanate the year before. Both rulers had signed the protectorate treaties to advance their own expansionist objectives, with Boqor Osman looking to use Italy's support in his ongoing power struggle with Kenadid over the Majeerteen Sultanate. Boqor Osman and Sultan Kenadid also hoped to exploit the conflicting interests among the European imperial powers that were then looking to control the Somali peninsula, so as to avoid direct occupation of their territories by force.
With the gradual extension into northern Somalia of European colonial rule, all three sultanates were annexed to Italian Somaliland and British Somaliland in the early 20th century.
Establishment of Puntland
Following the outbreak of the Somali Civil War in 1991, a home-grown constitutional conference was held in Garoowe in 1998 over a period of three months. Attended by the area's political elite, traditional elders (Issims), members of the business community, intellectuals and other civil society representatives, the autonomous Puntland State of Somalia was established to deliver services to the population, offer security, facilitate trade, and interact with domestic and international partners. Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed served as the fledgling state's founding president.
As stipulated in Article 1 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland is a part of the Federal State of Somalia. As such, the region seeks the unity of Somalis and adheres to a federal system of government. Unlike the secessionist self-declared entity of Somaliland to its west, Puntland is not trying to obtain international recognition as a separate nation. However, both regions have one thing in common: they base their support upon clan elders and their organizational structure along lines based on clan relationships and kinship. However, a key difference was that Puntland was formed as a descendant-based entity unlike in Somaliland. The state was established as a "homeland" for the Harti community of Northern Somalia, whereby the Majeerten were deemed as the "chief architects" of the entity. Since its establishment in 1998, Puntland has also been in territorial disputes with Somaliland over the Sool, Sanaag and Ayn regions.
The legal structure of Puntland consists of the judiciary, legislative (House of Representatives) and the executive (the President and his nominated Council of Ministries) branches of government. Though relatively peaceful, the region briefly experienced political unrest in 2001 when then President of Puntland, Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, one of the founding fathers of the Puntland State and its first president, wanted his term extended. Ahmed and Jama Ali Jama fought for control of the region, with Ahmed emerging victorious the following year. Ahmed served his second term as president until October 2004, when he was elected President of Somalia. He was succeeded in office by Mohamed Hashi, who served until January 2005 when he lost a re-election bid in parliament to General Mohamud Muse Hersi "Adde".
General Adde Muse administration
In March 2005, President Muse began an ambitious plan to build an airport in Puntland's commercial capital of Bosaso, a project which is now complete and referred to as Bender Qassim International Airport.
In April 2007, Muse held meetings with Sheikh Saud bin Saqr Al Qasimi, the crown prince and deputy ruler of Ras al-Khaimah in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), where the two leaders signed an agreement on a deal for setting up of a dedicated livestock quarantine facility to facilitate the import of livestock from Somalia to the UAE. In October 2008, Muse also signed a Dh170 million agreement with Dubai's Lootah Group to support the construction of an airport, seaport and free zone in the coastal city of Bosaso. Muse indicated that "I believe that when we finish all these projects our people will benefit by getting good health services, education and overall prosperity."
In January 2009, Abdirahman Farole was elected the new president of Puntland. Upon assuming office, the Farole administration implemented a number of reforms, particularly in the security and judicial sectors. To bolster the region's justice system, numerous new prosecutors, judges and other court personnel as well as additional prison guards were hired and trained. In July 2010, the Puntland Council of Ministers unanimously approved a new anti-terrorism law to more efficiently handle terror suspects and their accomplices; a special court is also expected to be established within the region's existing criminal courts system to facilitate the task.
Fiscally, a transparent, budget-based public finance system was established, which has reportedly helped increase public confidence in government. In addition, a new regional constitution was drafted and later passed on 15 June 2009, which is believed to represent a significant step toward the eventual introduction of a multi-party political system to the region for the first time; such a system already exists in the adjacent Somaliland region.
More modest reforms were also put into motion in the social sector, particularly in the education and healthcare fields. The regional government has hired more healthcare workers and teachers, with major plans under way for school and hospital renovations. One of the most significant new reforms enacted by the incumbent Puntland administration is the launching in May 2009 of the Puntland Agency For Social Welfare (PASWE), the first organization of its kind in Somali history. The agency provides medical, educational and counselling support to vulnerable groups and individuals such as orphans, the disabled and the blind. PASWE is overseen by a Board of Directors, which consists of religious scholars (ulema), business people, intellectuals and traditional elders.
On 15 June 2009, the Puntland government passed a new regional draft constitution, representing a significant step toward the eventual introduction of a multi-party political system to the region for the first time.
Women at a political function during the Puntland democratisation process
On 15 April 2012, the Puntland government opened a four-day constitutional convention officially inaugurating the new Constitution of Puntland. Overseen by the Puntland Electoral Commission (PEC), the constitution represented the final step in the extant regional democratization process and was scheduled to be followed by the formation of political parties.
On 12 September 2012, the Puntland Electoral Commission announced that the registration process for political parties in Puntland was now open. This came after the passing of the Political Association Law, the Referendum Act, the District Elections Law and the inauguration of the state constitution. They will also be challengers in the next elections, scheduled for January 2014.
On 14 November 2012, President Farole announced the launching of his new political party, Horseed. The association counts over 200 members and represents the incumbent Puntland government, including Vice President Abdisamad Ali Shire and the state Ministers. It is the first prospective party to register for an application with the Transitional Puntland Electoral Commission (TPEC). According to Farole, the general public will be eligible for membership in the organization once it is selected as an official political party. Five other political associations were established the following month, including the Development and Justice Party (Xisbiga Horumarinta iyo Cadaalada) or Horcad Party which was launched by an entrepreneur and businessman Omar Ismail Waberi along other members, the Union of the People of the Regions or UPR (Ururka Gobolada Umadaha Bahoobey or UGUB), Midnimo, Talowadaag (Consensus-building), and GAHAYR or Golaha Aqoonta iyo Horumarinta ee Asaaska Yoolka Runta (Council of Education and Development towards Founding the True Goal).
Dr. Abdiweli Mohamed Ali Gaas administration
Presidential residence in Bosaso
On 8 January 2014, former Prime Minister of Somalia Abdiweli Mohamed Ali was elected as the 5th President of Puntland overcoming Dr. Farole by a single electoral vote. Abdihakim Abdullahi Haji Omar was concurrently elected Puntland's vice president.
On 8 January 2019 the former Federal Minister for Planning and International Cooperation, Said Abdullahi Dani, was declared the new president. The election was closely contested, going to a third round of voting. Dani defeated former intelligence officer, Asad Osman Diyano. Dani got 35 votes, to Diayno's 31 votes.
President of Puntland Said Abdullahi Dani
Dani addressed the lawmakers after being declared the winner. He said he would continue the policies of his predecessor, Abdiweli Gaas.
Speakers of the Puntland Parliament
On 22 December 2009, Puntland MPs introduced a new state flag at a parliamentary session in Garowe. With 38 of 41 legislators endorsing the motion, it also permitted the creation of a new state anthem.
Puntland's new regional flag consists of three colours: white, blue and green.
- Top: the blue stripe with the white star in the centre symbolizes the flag of Somalia
- Centre: the white stripe in the centre represents peace and stability in the region
- Bottom: the green stripe symbolizes the natural wealth of the Puntland State of Somalia
As stipulated in Article 3 of the Transitional Federal Charter of the Somali Republic, Puntland consists of the following claimed regions:
Redistricting and border disputes
In January 2009, the short-lived quasi-state of Maakhir was officially incorporated into Puntland.
Control of the western Sool, Sanaag and Cayn (SSC) provinces is disputed with Somaliland.
On 8 April 2013, the Puntland government announced the creation of a new region named Gardafuul. Carved out of the Bari region, it consists of three districts and has its capital at Aluula. Prior to naming this new region, the previous government of Puntland created three regions, all carved out of the existing regions: Karkaar was carved out of Bari, Haylaan out of Sanaag, and Ayn out of Togdheer region.
peering over the leafier portions of Puntland's Cal Madow
Puntland is geographically situated in the northeastern portion of Somalia. It is bordered by Somaliland to its west, the Gulf of Aden in the north, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, and Ethiopia in the southwest. Puntland occupies a total land area of 212,510 km2 (82,050 sq mi) or roughly one-third of Somalia's geographical area. Mountains include Golis Mountains, Galgala, and Al Madow.
The region is semi-arid, with a warm climate and average daily temperatures ranging from 27 °C (80.6 °F) to 37 °C (98.6 °F). These climatic conditions favor pastoralism as the most effective use of land in most parts of the region. Grazing lands include the Hawd region in the high plateau to the west of the Mudug and Sool regions, into the lush green land of Sanaag and into Ethiopia and the low Nugaal valley. Mild temperatures, by contrast, are experienced only along the high mountain ranges of Bari.
Rainfall is sparse and variable, with no single area receiving more than 400 mm (15.7 in) of rain annually. Nomads primarily rely on wells as a source of water rather than surface water. There are four main seasons around which pastoral and agricultural life revolve, and these are dictated by shifts in the wind patterns. Puntland's seasons are:
- Jilal – from January to March; the harshest dry season of the year
- Gu – from April to June; the main rainy season
- Xagaa – from July to September; the second dry season
- Deyr – from October to December; the shorter and less reliable rainy season
Following the outbreak of the civil war in Somalia, numerous problems arose with regard to access to education in rural areas and along gender lines, quality of educational provisions, responsiveness of school curricula, educational standards and controls, management and planning capacity, and financing. To address these concerns, the Puntland government is in the process of developing an educational policy to guide the region's scholastic process as it embarks on the path of reconstruction and economic development. The latter includes a gender sensitive national education policy compliant with world standards, such as those outlined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Examples of this and other educational measures at work are the government's enactment of legislation aimed at securing the educational interests of girls, promoting the growth of an Early Childhood Development (ECD) program designed to reach parents and care-givers in their homes as well as in the ECD centers for 0- to 5-year-old children, and introducing incentive packages to encourage teachers to work in remote rural areas.
Within the Puntland government, the Ministry of Education is responsible for developing and managing the region's educational needs. It is headed by the Minister Mohamud Bile Dubbe, under whom a Vice Minister and Director General help oversee a Post-Primary Education Division (PPED) and a Basic Education Directorate (BED), among other boards.
The educational system of Puntland comprises two years of Early Childhood Development (ECD), eight years of primary education (four years of lower primary and four years of upper primary) and four years of secondary education. Tertiary education comprises an average of four years, with the region currently counting seven major universities: Puntland State University in Garowe, Puntland State University in Galkayo, Bosaso College in Bosaso, East Somalia University in Qardho, Mogadishu University (Puntland branch) in Bosaso, Maakhir University in Badhan, Sanaag, and Nugaal University in Las Anod. East Africa University also has six branches in Puntland, with campuses in Bosaso, Erigavo, Galdogob, Galkayo, Garowe and Qardho. Thus, it is a 2-4-4-4 system. Puntland's Ministry of Education also recognizes non-formal education (NFE) and technical/vocational education and training (TVET) as integral parts of the region's educational system.
From 2005/2006 to 2006/2007, there was a significant increase in the number of schools in Puntland, up 137 institutions from just one year prior. During the same period, the number of classes in the region increased by 504, with 762 more teachers also offering their services. Total student enrollment increased by 27% over the previous year, with girls lagging only slightly behind boys in attendance in most regions. The highest class enrollment was observed in the northernmost Bari region, and the lowest was observed in the under-populated Ayn region. The distribution of classrooms was almost evenly split between urban and rural areas, with marginally more pupils attending and instructors teaching classes in urban areas.
Following the COVID-19 crisis, the Government of Puntland launched the Learning Passport, a digital remote learning platform where children can access educational content both online and offline from their homes. The Learning Passport is a ground-breaking partnership between UNICEF, Microsoft and the University of Cambridge.
Demographics and religion
As of 2005, the population of Puntland is estimated at 2 million residents, 65% of whom are nomads. The region is primarily inhabited by people from the Somali ethnic group, with the Darod especially well-represented. There are also a number of Mehri residents.
Currently, 30% of the region's residents live in the fast-growing towns of Bosaso, Gardo, Galdogob, Garowe and Galkayo. Approximately 70% of the population is also below the age of 30.
The population density in Puntland is estimated at about 18 inhabitants per square kilometre (47/sq mi).
As with the rest of Somalia, Islam is the main religion of the Puntland region with all of the residents being Muslims.
Municipal bus services operate in Bosaso, Garowe, Las Anod, Galkayo and Qardho. Shuttle services between the region's major towns and adjacent hamlets are also available via different types of vehicles, such as 4 wheel drives and light goods vehicles (LGV). As of May 2015, over 70,000 vehicles are registered with the Puntland Ministry of Works and Transport.
Roadside view of a neighbourhood in Garowe
Puntland is traversed by a 750 km (470 mi) north–south highway. It connects major cities in the northern part of Somalia, such as Garowe, Bosaso and Galkayo, with towns in the south. In 2012, the Puntland Highway Authority completed rehabilitation work on the central artery linking Garowe with Galkayo. The transportation body also started an upgrade and repair project in June 2012 on the large thoroughfare between the regional capital and Bosaso. Additionally, renovations began in October 2012 on the freeway linking Bosaso with Qardho. Plans are also in the works to construct new roads connecting littoral towns in the region to the main highway.
Bosaso has a major seaport, which was constructed during the mid-1980s for annual livestock shipments to the Middle East. In January 2012, a renovation project was launched, with KMC contracted to upgrade the harbor. The initiative's first phase saw the clean-up of unwanted materials from the dockyard and was completed within the month. The second phase involves the reconstruction of the port's adjoining seabed, with the objective of accommodating larger ships. In 2012, a team of engineers was also enlisted by the Puntland authorities to assess the ongoing renovations taking place at the Las Khorey port. According to the Minister of Ports, Said Mohamed Rage, the Puntland government intends to launch more such development projects in Las Khorey.
Local airlines offer flights to various domestic and international locations, such as Djibouti, Addis Ababa, Dubai and Jeddah; they also provide flights for the Hajj and Umrah pilgrimages. The most prominent airlines in Puntland are Jubba Airways, Osob Air and Daallo Airlines, which operate from Bender Qassim International Airport in Bosaso and Abdullahi Yusuf International Airport (formerly Galkayo Airport) in Galkayo, among other places. In late September 2013, a launching ceremony of a tender process for the Bosaso airport's renovations was held at the facility. The renovations will include the extension of the airport's gravel runway from 1,800 m to 2,650 m. The runway's width will also be widened from 30 m to 45 m, and feature 7.5 m gravel shoulders on both sides. According to Puntland Deputy Minister of Civil Aviation Abdiqani Gelle, the Puntland government plans to carry out similar upgrades at the Garowe International Airport in Garowe, the Abdullahi Yusuf International Airport in Galkayo, and the Qardho Airport in Qardho.
The Puntland Security Force (PSF) is the armed force of the autonomous Puntland region. Commanders and senior officials of the military are appointed by a qualified panel approved by the Council of Ministers. The Puntland security apparatus also has an independent military judiciary.
The PSF includes the Puntland Dervish Force (PDF), its official paramilitary division. It operates its own police force, which includes a Special Protection Unit.
The Puntland Intelligence Agency (PIA) is the intelligence bureau of Puntland's military. It was established in 2001 as the Puntland Intelligence Service during the rule of President Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed, with help from the United States.
The Puntland Maritime Police Force (PMPF) is a locally recruited, professional maritime security force. It is primarily aimed at preventing, detecting and eradicating piracy, illegal fishing, and other illicit activity off of the coast of Somalia, and at generally safeguarding the nation's marine resources. In addition, the Force provides civic support, including repairing wells, rehabilitating hospitals and clinics, and refurbishing roads, airports and other infrastructure. It also offers skills training programs to local communities.
Recently Constructed Deep Sea Port of Garacad
Puntland has 1,600 km (990 mi) of coastline, which is abundant with fish and other natural marine resources. Additional economic products and activities of the region include livestock, frankincense, myrrh, gum arabic, manufacturing and agriculture. Agricultural products such as mangoes, bananas, guavas, lemons, sugarcanes, and peanuts are grown on plantations around the state.
Food items and consumer goods imported via Berbera, Somaliland sell more cheaply compared to those imported via Bosaso. Therefore, in exchange live animals originating from Puntland are exported via Berbera. The key trading centres in Puntland are centred in Bosaso and Galkayo. However, other towns such as Qardho and Garowe act as second-grade market places.
Puntland has the lowest rate of poverty in Somalia, with 27%, compared to 50% in Somaliland and 57% in Mogadishu. Experts believe this is because of higher consumption and higher labour force participation. Households in Puntland consume a higher quantity per capita per item and more items per household. The lower rate of poverty does not appear to be driven by household size, as the average in Puntland is 5.2, compared to 5.7 in Somaliland and 4.5 in Mogadishu. Puntland is doing better in various important indicators of well-being. For instance, the literacy rate in Puntland is 64% compared to the national average of 55%. Additionally, households in Puntland also outperform the average in other educational outcomes such as enrolment and educational attainment. 70% of households in Puntland have access to improved water sources compared to the national average of 58%. Therefore, Puntland's higher performance on non-monetary indicators of well-being are inline with its lower rate of poverty.
Selected poverty indicators
(% of population)
(% of poverty line)
current million USD)
|The total monetary value of the poverty gap includes the entire Somali population.
In December 2011, a new commercial market opened in Bosaso's northern Dayaha ("Star") neighborhood, near the seaport. Approximately half a kilometer in size, it was designed to ensure easy vehicle access. The market is the result of careful planning between Puntland government officials and civil society representatives.
Bosaso is also home to Golis Telecom Somalia, the largest telecommunications operator in northeastern Somalia. Founded in 2002 with the objective of supplying the country with GSM mobile services, fixed line and internet services, it has an extensive network that covers all of the nation's major cities and more than 40 districts in both Puntland and Somaliland. Additionally, Netco has its headquarters in the city. Other telecommunication firms serving the region include Telcom and NationLink.
In April 2013, the Puntland Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources officially inaugurated a new fish market in Garowe. Constructed in conjunction with the UK authorities and the UNDP, it is part of a larger regional development plan which will see two other similar marketplaces launched within the year in Galkayo and Qardho.
In August 2014, in conjunction with the government of Djibouti and an international construction firm headquartered in China, the Puntland Transport and Seaports Ministry launched a project to establish new seaports in the regional state. The initiative is part of a broader campaign by the Puntland administration to focus on tapping into the region's commercial potential through various development projects.
In the 2000s, the Puntland government began official negotiations with foreign oil companies over exploration rights in the area. The provincial authorities in October 2005 granted Range Resources a majority stake in two sizable land-based mineral and hydrocarbon exploration licenses, in addition to offshore rights. The onshore Nugaal and Dharoor Valley blocks in question span over 14,424 and 24,908 km2 (5,569 and 9,617 sq mi), respectively. Two years later, Range Resources obtained a 100% interest in the two blocks and concurrently farmed out 80% of that share to Canmex Minerals.
In January 2007, the Puntland administration, which was then led by President Mohamud Muse Hersi, signed the Puntland Product Sharing Agreement (PSA) with Range Resources Limited and the Canmex Minerals subsidiary Canmex Holdings (Bermuda) II Limited.
Following a change in leadership in 2009, the Puntland government, now led by President Abdirahman Mohamud Farole, sought to renegotiate the profit sharing agreement with Range Resources to ensure more favorable terms for the region. In 2012, the Puntland government gave the green light to the first official oil exploration project in Puntland and Somalia at large.
In 2017, Puntland ministers held a cabinet meeting where they approved an oil exploration deal with Chinese company CCECC, in return for constructing a road connecting Eyl and Garowe as well as renovations and refurbishments to the Abdullahi Yusuf Airport.
Some satellite services in Puntland
Puntland has its own television channel and studios. Puntland TV and Radio is the public broadcasting network of the autonomous Puntland region of Somalia. Its headquarters are at the regional capital of Garowe. The service also maintains an office in London. Founded in April 2013, Puntland TV and Radio broadcasts locally in Somali via terrestrial service. It also airs programs globally through satellite. Radio Puntland broadcasts internationally via shortwave, with its transmission reaching as far as Finland. Its standard programming includes general news, focusing on regional developments, sports and entertainment.
The private stations Eastern Television Network (ETN TV) and Somali Broadcasting Corporation (SBC TV) broadcast from Bosaso.
Established in 2004, Radio Garowe is a community radio station based in Garowe. The station broadcasts daily from Somalia at 89.8 FM, covering all the latest headlines in Somali news, politics, and society. It also broadcasts other special programming on Garowe Online, its online sister website.
LaasqorayNET is another privately owned website based in Badhan, Bosaso, Dubai and London. The website features articles written in Somali and English. In addition, the website hosts some audio, though the latter is not regularly updated.
Radio Gaalkacyo is the state radio station. Based in Galkayo, it was formerly known as Radio Free Somalia.
Horseed Media was established in 2002 by a group of Somali intellectuals in the Netherlands and Finland. The station broadcasts from Bosaso and has a listening audience of about 80,000 people, with a reach of 150 km2 (58 sq mi). It also operates a website that counts over 10,000 daily visitors.
Based in Garowe, Puntland Post was established in 2001 by Somali expatriates in Denmark. Its website publishes daily domestic and international news reports and analysis in both Somali and English, with an emphasis on Puntland affairs.
Established in 2014, Puntland Star presents breaking news, stories and documentaries from Somalia and the rest of the world.
Other media organizations include Raxanreeb Online (RBC Radio). Launched in 2006, RBC presents Somali news to a global audience in both Somali and English. With direct sources based in Somalia, it covers local politics and society.
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 June 2017. Retrieved 30 May 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ https://en.populationdata.net/rankings/population/#Puntland
- ^ https://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/1207_Puntland.pdf
- ^ "Puntland State of Somalia". Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
- ^ Dan Richardson, Egypt, (Rough Guides: 2003), p. 404 ISBN 1858281881
- ^ Ian McMahan, Secrets of the Pharaohs, (HarperCollins: 1998), p. 92 ISBN 0380797208
- ^ David B. O'Connor, Stephen Quirke, Quir O'Connor, Mysterious lands, (UCL Press: 2003), p. 64 ISBN 1598742078
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 July 2019. Retrieved 19 May 2019.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ a b Helen Chapin Metz, Somalia: a country study, (The Division: 1993), p. 10 ISBN 0844407755.
- ^ Horn of Africa, Volume 15, Issues 1–4, (Horn of Africa Journal: 1997), p. 130.
- ^ Transformation towards a regulated economy, (WSP Transition Programme, Somali Programme: 2000) p. 62.
- ^ Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600–1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p. 75 ISBN 0812278321.
- ^ a b The Majeerteen Sultanates
- ^ His Excellency Abdirahman Mohamed Mohamud (Farole). President of Puntland State of Somalia Somalia: Puntland's Experience in Peace-building and State-building Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. garoweonline.com (3 April 2012)
- ^ Somalia Business Law Handbook: Strategic Information and Laws. International Business Publications. 2013. p. 102. ISBN 978-1438771045. Retrieved 15 June 2017.
- ^ a b c d e f g "Ministry of Planning and International Corporation" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 December 2018.
- ^ a b "Range Resources: Speculative Buy at 25.5p - Target price 56p" (PDF). Range Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 November 2012. Retrieved 19 April 2019.
The Puntland State of Somalia has considered itself autonomous since 1998, with its own capital city of Garoowe and has designated regions with recognized regional capitals. The Putland authorities, headed by President Adde Muse Hersi, maintain a low profile and do not seek independence from the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of Somalia (Mogadishu being the capital). The autonomous State of Puntaland emerged after the fall of President Siyad Barre in 1991. In the south of Somalia, Islamic courts, warlords and regional tribes jostle for power and control whilst the State of Puntland experiences relative political stability with one dominant clan currently and historically controlling the region.The stability of Puntland is largely a product of its clan system which creates an established order based on family loyalty and cultural bonds and creates a more proactive and solution oriented politi-cal system.
- ^ Local and Global Norms: Challenges to "Somaliland's" Unilateral Secession Archived 6 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ Lund, Christian; Eilenberg, Michael (11 July 2017). Rule and Rupture: State Formation Through the Production of Property and Citizenship. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-1-119-38473-1.
- ^ ISSAfrica.org (5 September 2009). "The political development of Somaliland and its conflict with Puntland". ISS Africa. Retrieved 2 August 2020.
- ^ Remarks on the 1998 Charter of Puntland State of Somalia. United Nations Development Programme Somalia, United Nations Development Office for Somalia. 1999.
- ^ "Puntland State Of Somalia". Puntlandgovt.com. 18 March 2005. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "The President Tours the Bossaso Airport Construction Site". Puntlandgovt.com. 31 August 2007. Archived from the original on 7 November 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "RAK and Puntland State of Somalia sign agreements to boost bilateral cooperation | Government of Ras Al Khaimah". AMEinfo.com. Archived from the original on 28 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "Puntland: The land of opportunity". Hiiraan.com. November 2008. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2010.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland Cabinet approves counterterrorism law". Garoweonline.com. 17 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ a b c "President Farole – the Pride of Puntland". Garowe Online. 12 May 2010. Archived from the original on 19 June 2010. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ "Somaliland women prepare strategy for election". Afrol.com. Archived from the original on 22 April 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland leader launches welfare agency". Garoweonline.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2010.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland constitutional convention opens in Garowe". Garowe Online. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: 'Registration of political associations open': Puntland Election Commission". Garowe Online. 12 September 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 18 September 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland MPs amend electoral law". Garowe Online. 12 November 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland President announces political association". Garowe Online. 14 November 2012. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 19 November 2012.
- ^ "New political party launched in Puntland". Puntlandi. 4 December 2012. Archived from the original on 4 June 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- ^ "Somalia: Two new Puntland political associations declared in Garowe". Garowe Online. 21 December 2012. Archived from the original on 10 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- ^ "Somalia: Former PM Abdiweli Ali Gas wins in the Puntland Presidential Elections". Raxanreeb. 8 January 2014. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- ^ "Cabdixakiin Cabdullaahi Camey oo loo doortey Madaxweyne kuxigeenka Puntland". Horseed Media. 8 January 2014. Archived from the original on 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- ^ Mareeg Media
- ^ SOMALIA: Puntland to hold referendum in two years. Irinnews.org (21 April 2001). Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ Garowe Puntland Parliament Will Decide on New Constitution, Says Speaker. AllAfrica (8 July 2008)
- ^ Somalia: Puntland Parliament approves new Cabinet Archived 9 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Garoweonline.com (28 January 2009). Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: Former Cabinet minister elected as new Puntland Parliament Speaker". Garowe Online. 4 January 2014. Archived from the original on 6 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- ^ "Somalia: Second time as the Speaker of Puntland Parliament". Horseed Media. 9 November 2015. Archived from the original on 23 November 2015. Retrieved 9 November 2015.
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland parliament endorse new flag". Garowe Online. 22 December 2009. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 July 2013.
- ^ Map of Puntland State of Somalia
- ^ "Election and administrative structure". plstate. Archived from the original on 18 July 2017. Retrieved 24 May 2017.
- ^ "Somalia - Maakhir". Worldstatesmen. Archived from the original on 9 February 2006. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ "Puntlandpost.com - All About Somalia and Puntland". Puntland Post. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Puntland State Of Somalia". Archived from the original on 21 December 2014. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ Kariye, Dr Badal W. The Rise & The Fall of Somali President His Excellency Mohamed Abdillahi Mohamed (Farmajo). Lulu.com. ISBN 978-1-387-98657-6.
- ^ "Where is Puntland?". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 30 June 2021.
- ^ Refugees, United Nations High Commissioner for. "Refworld | Al-Shabaab: Why Somalia's al-Qaeda Affiliate Wants Puntland". Refworld. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- ^ Hoehne, Markus Virgil (3 July 2014). "Resource conflict and militant Islamism in the Golis Mountains in northern Somalia (2006–2013)". Review of African Political Economy. 41 (141): 358–373. doi:10.1080/03056244.2014.901945. ISSN 0305-6244.
- ^ "Somalia battles al-Shabab for Galgala mountains". BBC News. 1 October 2014. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- ^ "Education". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Girl's Education". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Chlidren Education (sic)". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Education for Nomads". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "The Ministry". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Hon. Mohamud Bile Dubbe Minister of Education". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 29 September 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ a b "Educational System". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ East Somalia University Archived 26 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine. East Somalia University. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ "Tertiary Education". Ministry of Education - Puntland State of Somalia. Archived from the original on 30 August 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "A programme for improving governance, leadership and management capacity of the three health authorities in Somalia". Mannion Daniels Limited. Archived from the original on 15 October 2013. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- ^ Basic education survey. Puntland State of Somalia – Ministry of Education (2007)
- ^ "Puntland Ministry of Education and UNICEF launch on-line learning platform". www.unicef.org. Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- ^ "Puntland Learning Passport". puntland.learningpassport.unicef.org (in Somali). Retrieved 7 July 2021.
- ^ "Puntland Fact Sheet" (PDF). July 2012.
- ^ Africa Confidential, Volume 48. Miramoor Publications Limited. 2007. p. 131. Archived from the original on 31 December 2013. Retrieved 23 October 2016.
- ^ Farah, Mohamed I. (April 1994). "Politics and Society in Somalia's North-Eastern Region". Life & Peace Review. 8 (4). Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 22 June 2013.
- ^ "Puntland sends caveat to drivers without legal driving license". Goobjoog. 10 May 2015. Archived from the original on 18 May 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2015.
- ^ The First 100 Days in Office Archived 23 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ a b "Puntland to rehabilitate Bosaso-Qardo road". Sabahi. 22 October 2012. Archived from the original on 13 May 2013. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- ^ a b "Puntland to upgrade Bosaso-Garowe highway". Sabahi. 28 June 2012. Archived from the original on 4 July 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: Bossaso port renovation project completes first phase". Garowe Online. 29 January 2012. Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- ^ Somalia: Somaliland naval forces attack crew in Sanaag region Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Somalia: Puntland Minister of Ports visits Lasqoray". Garowe Online. 17 June 2012. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- ^ "Somalia: 20 companies compete for Bossaso Airport runway bid". Garowe Online. 30 September 2013. Archived from the original on 4 October 2013. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ a b Puntland Constitution Archived 13 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Puntlandgovt.com. Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ a b Intelligence profile – Somalia Archived 5 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Cvni.net (6 June 2007). Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ Puntland's govt blasts VOA report as 'appeasing Al Shabaab' in Somalia Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Garoweonline.com (30 September 2010). Retrieved on 20 May 2012.
- ^ "PPSACCIG". Garowe Online. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013.
- ^ a b "About - Puntland Maritime Police Force". Puntland Maritime Police Force. Archived from the original on 11 August 2012. Retrieved 25 April 2012.
- ^ "SomaliaReport: Puntland Government Delivers Food and Water". Archived from the original on 22 March 2016. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Puntland State Of Somalia". Archived from the original on 5 October 2007. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
- ^ "Ifrah Nur Hassan: Breaking stereotypes in Puntland's farming sector". UNSOM. 12 December 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2021.
- ^ a b c d Rebuilding Somalia : issues and possibilities for Puntland. War-torn Societies Project. London: HAAN Associates. 2001. ISBN 1-874209-04-9. OCLC 48893001.CS1 maint: others (link)
- ^ a b c Pape, Utz; di Filippo, Mario; Nunez, Gonzalo; Wollburg, Philip (June 2017). "Somali Poverty Profile 2016" (PDF). The World Bank (PDF). The World Bank. pp. 91–102. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 October 2017.
- ^ "Somalia: New market opens in Bossaso". Garowe Online. 14 December 2011. Archived from the original on 5 October 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2012.
- ^ "Golis Telecom Somalia Profile". Golis Telecom website. Archived from the original on 22 October 2007. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
- ^ "Somalia: New Fish Market opens in Garowe". Garowe Online. Archived from the original on 17 October 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013.
- ^ "SOMALIA: Puntland to establish new seaports as part of the "Boost Puntland Economy" campaign". Raxanreeb. 21 August 2014. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015. Retrieved 18 April 2015.
- ^ "Oil and Gas Exploration and Production - Playing a Better Hand" (PDF). Range Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 October 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- ^ "2007 Annual Report" (PDF). Range Resources. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 March 2012. Retrieved 14 July 2012.
- ^ Mark Hawthorne (4 February 2009). "You're not sacked, you've been realigned". The Age. Archived from the original on 3 December 2009. Retrieved 10 November 2009.
- ^ Red Emperor, Range rally on Puntland drilling update Archived 13 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Proactiveinvestors.com (2012-03-07). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
- ^ Somalia: President Farole returns to Puntland Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Garoweonline.com (2012-03-08). Retrieved on 2012-05-20.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 6 May 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 July 2017. Retrieved 17 July 2017.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- ^ "Somali Media Mapping - Radio Stations". Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- ^ "Radio Puntland from Somalia testing on 13800 kHz shortwave". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 22 March 2015.
- ^ Planning and Statistics Department, Puntland Ministry of Planning and International Cooperation (2006). The Statistical Abstract of Bosaso Municipality. Bosaso Municipal Council. p. 58.
- ^ "Radio Garowe - FM Frequencies". FMSCAN. Archived from the original on 13 November 2013. Retrieved 13 November 2013.
- ^ "About :: Puntland". Archived from the original on 28 April 2010. Retrieved 1 February 2015.