European sub-regions according to EuroVoc
Europe, the westernmost portion of Eurasia—is often divided into regions based on geographical, cultural or historical criteria. Many European structures currently exist. Some are cultural, economic, or political; examples include the Council of Europe, the European Broadcasting Union with the Eurovision Song Contest, and the European Olympic Committees with the European Games. Russia dominates the continent by both area and population; spanning roughly 40% of its total landmass, with over 15% of its total population.
Several countries are often included as belonging to a "wider Europe" including Greenland; Cyprus; the Caucasus countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; the two mainly Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Turkey; as well as the overseas territories and regions of the European Union.
Groupings by compass directions are the hardest to define in Europe, since there are a few calculations of the midpoint of Europe (among other issues), and the pure geographical criteria of "east" and "west" are often confused with the political meaning these words acquired during the Cold War Era.
The modern physical geographic regions of Europe, include:
- Central Europe
- East-Central Europe
- Eastern Europe
- Northeastern Europe
- Northern Europe
- Northwestern Europe
- Southeastern Europe
- Southern Europe
- Southwestern Europe
- Western Europe
Europe can be divided along many differing historical lines, normally corresponding to those parts that were inside or outside a particular cultural phenomenon, empire or political division. The areas varied at different times, and so it is arguable as to which were part of some common historical entity (e.g., were Germany or Britain part of Roman Europe as they were only partly and relatively briefly part of the Empire—or were the countries of the former communist Yugoslavia part of the Eastern Bloc, since it was not in the Warsaw Pact).
A clickable Euler diagram
showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.
Economic and political
- Countries that are a part of the political and economic bloc (27 members as of 2020):
- Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.
- An alliance of Mediterranean countries within EU:
- Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain
- Countries that have adopted the euro as their currency:
- Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Vatican City.
- A free trade organisation that operates in parallel with – and is linked to – the EU:
- Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
- A free trade agreement among non-EU members:
- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo (represented by UNMIK), Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia.
- A borderless zone created by the Schengen Agreements, including:
- Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland, which by separate agreements fully apply the provisions of the Schengen acquis.
- A customs union of all the member states of the European Union (EU) and some neighbouring countries:
- Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Andorra, San Marino, and Turkey are each in customs union with the EU's customs territory.
- An economic union of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia. Moldova and Uzbekistan hold observer status.
- A free trade agreement among the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.
- A forum of regional economic cooperation:
- Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine.
- A group of former Soviet Eastern European countries cooperating with the EU:
- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.
- European countries that are a part of the OECD:
- Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
- A forum of regional cooperation including:
- Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine
- A military and political alliance between Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and observer states of Afghanistan and Serbia.
- A group of former Soviet disputed states in Eastern Europe:
- Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria.
- An international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy, and the rule of law in Europe, and to promote European culture.
- It has 47 member states, with approximately 820 million people.
- The world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization, with 57 participating states mostly in the Northern Hemisphere.
- A cultural and political alliance of four Central European states for the purposes of furthering their European integration, as well as for advancing military, economic and energy cooperation with one another:
- Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.
- An Interreg IIIA project to establish a multinational region in Central Europe encompassing four European countries: Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic.
- Promotes Central European cooperation.
- The Balkan peninsula is located in southeast Europe and the following countries occupy land within the Balkans either exclusively or partially:
- Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (approximately one half), Greece, Kosovo,[a] Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania (the Dobrudja region), Serbia, Slovenia (coastal section) and Turkey (East Thrace)
- Located in southwestern Europe this peninsula contains Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra
- Located in the south of Europe, the Italian peninsula contains the states of Italy, San Marino and the Vatican City
- Located in the north of Europe, Norway, Sweden and part of Finland
- Located in the north of Europe, Norway, Sweden, Finland and part of Russia
- Jutland, main part of Denmark excluding its islands; Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany
- Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden.
- Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, parts of France, parts of Germany
- The United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Republic of Ireland
- Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia
- Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia; also the disputed territories of Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia
- Guernsey, Jersey
- Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Greenland, and Iceland
- States that occupy the Alps:
- Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Germany, France and Italy
- States that lie along the River Danube:
- Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine
- Overlaps with Southeastern Europe:
- Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Kosovo,[a] North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
- Countries occupying land on and off the Balkans are Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey (East Thrace).
- Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania
- Serbia, Kosovo[a] and Italy occupy a small portion of the Dinaric Alps.
- Chain of Islands in the North Atlantic
- Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira; also including Cape Verde, an independent African nation.
- Mediterranean nations are European countries on the Mediterranean Basin:
- Portugal, Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, San Marino, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Malta and the British territory of Gibraltar
- The Panonnian nations are:
- Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Austria, Ukraine
- The Black Sea nations (although some sections lie within Asia) are:
- Abkhazia (disputed territory), Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine and Russia
- The world's largest lake which forms a section of the Asian-European border has five countries occupying its shore. Turkmenistan and Iran lie entirely within Asia while the following countries are transcontinental and have sovereignty over the Caspian Sea's European sector:
- Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan
- Catholic majority countries, including Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, South and Western Germany, Gibraltar, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, parts of Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Southern Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain.
- Orthodox majority countries, including Armenia, Belarus, North and Eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, Republic of Artsakh (disputed territory), North Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine.
- Protestant majority countries, including Denmark, Estonia, Greenland, Finland, North and Eastern Germany, Iceland, parts of Latvia, Northern Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
- Muslim majority countries, including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,[a] Turkey, Northern Cyprus (disputed territory)
- Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom (including sovereign Republic of Ireland), Luxembourg, Switzerland (some cantons), Liechtenstein, Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Denmark (including Faroe Islands), Sweden, Norway, Iceland
- Romance-speaking region (East and West Romance geographically separated by any of two sovereign countries including Austria or Slovenia with Hungary)
- Slavic world (Northern Slavic and Southern Slavic separated by either of three countries: Austria, Hungary, Romania; or by the Black Sea):
- 1. Northern zone: Russia (including Siberia in Asia), Ukraine, Belarus (collectively known as East Slavs); and Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia (collectively known as West Slavs).
- 2. Southern zone: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Republic of Macedonia, Bulgaria (collectively known as South Slavs).