George Robert Acworth Conquest CMG OBE FBA FRSL (15 July 1917 – 3 August 2015) was a British historian and poet. He is best known for his Three Laws of Politics.
A long-time research fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, Conquest was most notable for his work on the Soviet Union. His books included The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties (1968); The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the Terror-Famine (1986); and Stalin: Breaker of Nations (1991). He was also the author of two novels and several collections of poetry.
Early life and education
Conquest was born in Great Malvern, Worcestershire, to an American father, Robert Folger Wescott Conquest, and an English mother, Rosamund Alys Acworth. His father served in an American Ambulance Field Service unit with the French Army in World War I, and was awarded the Croix de Guerre, with Silver Star in 1916.
Conquest was educated at Winchester College, where he won an exhibition to study Philosophy, Politics and Economics (PPE) at Magdalen College, Oxford. He took a gap year, spending time at the University of Grenoble and in Bulgaria, and returning to Oxford in 1937, where he joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and the Carlton Club. He was awarded an MA in PPE and a DLitt in history.
In Lisbon on an American passport at the outbreak of the Second World War, Conquest returned to England. As the Communist Party of Great Britain denounced the war in 1939 as imperialist and capitalist, Conquest broke with it and was commissioned into the Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry on 20 April 1940, serving with the regiment until 1946.
In 1943, he was posted to the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (later part of University College London) to study Bulgarian. The following year he was posted to Bulgaria as a liaison officer to the Bulgarian forces fighting under Soviet command, attached to the Third Ukrainian Front, then to the Allied Control Commission. At the end of the war, he joined the Foreign Office, returning to the British Legation in Sofia where he remained as the press officer. In 1948, he left Bulgaria when he was recalled to London under a minor diplomatic cloud after he had helped smuggle two Bulgarians out of the country.
In 1948, Conquest joined the Foreign Office's Information Research Department (IRD), a "propaganda counter-offensive" unit created by the Labour Attlee government in order to "collect and summarize reliable information about Soviet and communist misdoings, to disseminate it to friendly journalists, politicians, and trade unionists, and to support, financially and otherwise, anticommunist publications." The IRD was also engaged in manipulating public opinion. Conquest was remembered there as a "brilliant, arrogant" figure who had 10 people reporting to him. He continued to work at the Foreign Office until 1956, becoming increasingly involved in the intellectual counter-offensive against Communism.
In 1949, Conquest's assistant Celia Kirwan, later Celia Goodman, approached George Orwell for information to help identify Soviet sympathisers. Orwell's list, discovered after her death in 2002, included Guardian and Observer journalists, as well as E. H. Carr and Charlie Chaplin. Conquest, like Orwell, fell for the beautiful Celia Kirwan, who inspired him to write several poems. One of his foreign office colleagues was Alan Maclean, brother of Donald Maclean, one of the Philby spy ring, who fled to Russia with Guy Burgess in 1951. When his brother defected, Alan resigned, then went to Macmillan and published a book of Conquest's poems. At the Foreign Office, Conquest wrote several papers that sowed the seeds for his later work. One, on the Soviet means of obtaining confessions, was elaborated on in The Great Terror. Other papers were "Peaceful Co-existence in Soviet Propaganda and Theory", and "United Fronts – a Communist Tactic". In 1950 Conquest served briefly as First Secretary in the British Delegation to the United Nations.
In 1956, Conquest left the Foreign Office and became a freelance writer and historian. After he left, he says, the Information Research Department (IRD) suggested to him that he could combine some of the data he had gathered from Soviet publications into a book. During the 1960s, he edited eight volumes of work produced by the IRD, published in London by the Bodley Head as the Soviet Studies Series. Many of his Foreign Office works were published this way. In the United States, the material was republished as The Contemporary Soviet Union Series by Frederick Praeger, who had previously published several books on communism at the request of the CIA, in addition to works by Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Milovan Đilas, Howard Fast, and Charles Patrick Fitzgerald.
In 1962–1963, Conquest was literary editor of The Spectator, but he resigned when he found the job interfering with his historical writing. His first books on the Soviet Union were Common Sense About Russia (1960), The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (1960) and Power and Policy in the USSR (1961). His other early works on the Soviet Union included Courage of Genius: The Pasternak Affair (1961) and Russia After Khrushchev (1965).
The Great Terror (1968)
In 1968, Conquest published what became his best-known work, The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties, the first comprehensive research of the Great Purge, which took place in the Soviet Union between 1934 and 1939. Many reviewers at the time were not impressed by his way of writing about the Great Terror, which was in the tradition of "great men who make history". The book was based mainly on information which had been made public, either officially or by individuals, during the so-called "Khrushchev Thaw" in the period 1956–64. It also drew on accounts by Russian and Ukrainian émigrés and exiles dating back to the 1930s, and on an analysis of official Soviet documents such as the Soviet census. The most important aspect of the book was that it widened the understanding of the purges beyond the previous narrow focus on the "Moscow trials" of disgraced Communist Party of the Soviet Union leaders such as Nikolai Bukharin and Grigory Zinoviev, who were executed shortly thereafter. The question of why these leaders had pleaded guilty and confessed to various crimes at the trials had become a topic of discussion for a number of Western writers, and helped inspire anti-totalitarian tracts such as George Orwell's Nineteen Eighty-Four and Arthur Koestler's Darkness at Noon.
Conquest argued that the trials and executions of these former Communist leaders were a minor detail of the purges. By his estimates, Stalinist purges had led to the deaths of some 20 million people. He later stated that the total number of deaths could "hardly be lower than some thirteen to fifteen million." Conquest accused Western intellectuals such as Beatrice and Sidney Webb, George Bernard Shaw, Jean-Paul Sartre, Walter Duranty, Sir Bernard Pares, Harold Laski, D. N. Pritt, Theodore Dreiser, Bertolt Brecht, Owen Lattimore, and Romain Rolland, as well as American ambassador Joseph Davies, of being dupes of Stalin and apologists for his regime. Conquest cites various comments made by them where, he argues, they were denying, excusing, or justifying various aspects of the purges.
After the opening up of the Soviet archives, detailed information was released that Conquest argued supported his conclusions. When Conquest's publisher asked him to expand and revise The Great Terror, Conquest is said to have suggested the new version of the book be titled I Told You So, You Fucking Fools. In fact, the mock title was jokingly proposed by Conquest's old friend Kingsley Amis. The new version was published in 1990 as The Great Terror: A Reassessment. The American historian J. Arch Getty wrote in 1993 that the archives did not support Conquest's casualty figures. In 1995, investigative journalist Paul Lashmar suggested that the reputation of prominent academics such as Robert Conquest was built upon work derived from material provided by the IRD. According to Denis Healey The Great Terror was an important influence, "but one which confirmed people in their views rather than converted them".
Many aspects of his book are disputed by Sovietologist historians and researchers on Russian and Soviet history, such as Stephen G. Wheatcroft, who states that Conquest's victim totals for Stalinist repressions are too high. Anti-Communist poet Czesław Miłosz said that Conquest has been vindicated by history. In 2000, Michael Ignatieff, whose family had emigrated from Russia as a result of the Bolshevik Revolution, wrote "One of the few unalloyed pleasures of old age is living long enough to see yourself vindicated. Robert Conquest is currently enjoying this pleasure." Conservative historian Paul Johnson, one of Margaret Thatcher's closest advisers, described Conquest as "our greatest living historian". Timothy Garton Ash wrote that Conquest was Solzhenytsin before Solzhenytsin.
In 1996, Marxist historian Eric Hobsbawm, who had been previously attacked by Conquest for his book Age of Extremes, while praising Conquest's The Great Terror "as a remarkable pioneer effort to assess the Stalin Terror", said that this work and others were now obsolete "simply because the archival sources are now available." As a result, he wrote, there was no need for "fragmentary sources" and "guesswork". "[W]hen better or more complete data are available, they must take the place of poor and incomplete ones."
In 2002, Conquest replied to his critics: "They're still talking absolute balls. In the academy, there remains a feeling of, 'Don't let's be too rude to Stalin. He was a bad guy, yes, but the Americans were bad guys too, and so was the British Empire.'" Conquest openly declared himself to have been a Cold Warrior, a title which he rather relished: "They say [disapprovingly] that we were Cold Warriors. Yes, and a bloody good show, too. A lot of people weren't Cold Warriors—and so much the worse for them."
The Harvest of Sorrow (1986)
In 1986, Conquest published The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivisation and the Terror-Famine, dealing with the collectivisation of agriculture in Ukraine and elsewhere in the USSR, under Stalin's direction in 1929–31, and the resulting famine, in which millions of peasants died due to starvation, deportation to labour camps, and execution. In this book, Conquest supported the view that the famine was a planned act of genocide. According to historians Stephen Wheatcroft and R. W. Davies, "Conquest holds that Stalin wanted the famine [...] and that the Ukrainian famine was deliberately inflicted for its own sake." In 2003, Conquest wrote to them that "Stalin purposely inflicted the 1933 famine? No. What I argue is that with resulting famine imminent, he could have prevented it, but put 'Soviet interest' other than feeding the starving first thus consciously abetting it." Soviet historian, professor Ronald Grigor Suny of the University of Michigan, heavily criticises Conquest's extraordinarily high death tolls, noting that Conquest's estimation for famine deaths is almost quadruple that of many fellow Soviet historians.
Stalin and the Kirov Murder (1989)
For the Trotskyists, Kirov's murder was the Stalinist equivalent of the Reichstag fire, deliberately started by the Nazis to justify the arrest of German Communists. The Trotskyist-Menshevik view became the dominant one among western historians, popularised in Conquest's influential books.
In The Great Terror, Conquest had attacked the official Soviet story of conspiracy and treason. Conquest placed the murder in 1934 of the Leningrad party boss, Sergei Kirov, one of Stalin's inner circle, as the key to the mechanism of terror. He returned to this in Stalin and the Kirov Murder (1989), where he argued that Stalin not only sanctioned Kirov's assassination, but used it as a justification for the terror that climaxed in 1937–38, though no evidence has been found to confirm Stalin's role in the murder.
Poetry and literature
In addition to his scholarly work, Conquest was a well-regarded poet whose poems have been published in various periodicals from 1937. In 1945, he was awarded the PEN Brazil Prize for his war poem "For the Death of a Poet" about an army friend, the poet Drummond Allison, killed in Italy. In 1951, he received a Festival of Britain verse prize. During his lifetime, he had seven volumes of poetry and one of literary criticism published.
Conquest was a major figure in a prominent British literary circle known as "The Movement" which also included Philip Larkin and Kingsley Amis. Movement poets, many of whom bristled at being so labelled, rejected the experiments of earlier practitioners such as Ezra Pound.
In 1956 and 1962, Conquest edited the influential New Lines anthologies, introducing works by them, as well as Thom Gunn, Dennis Enright, and others, to a wider public. He spent 1959–60 as visiting poet at the University of Buffalo. Several of his poems were published in The New Oxford Book of Light Verse (1978; compiled by Amis), under the pseudonyms "Stuart Howard-Jones", "Victor Gray" and "Ted Pauker".
Philip Larkin's published letters revealed that Conquest and Larkin shared an enthusiasm for pornography in the 1950s. When Larkin was in Hull, Conquest sent him judicious selections of the latest pornography, and, when he came down to London, Conquest took him on shopping trips to the Soho porn shops. On one occasion in 1957, Conquest wrote a letter to Larkin purporting to come from the Vice Squad which had found the poet's name on a pornographic publisher's list. Larkin panicked and went to see his solicitor, convinced that he was going to lose his job as librarian at Hull University, before Conquest owned up. The true story of the joke became in 2008, Mr Larkin's Awkward Day, a comedy radio play by Chris Harrald.
Soon after his expulsion from the Soviet Union, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn met with Conquest, asking him to translate a 'little' poem of his into English verse. This was "Prussian Nights", nearly two thousand lines in ballad metre, published in 1977.
A new Collected Poems, edited by Elizabeth Conquest, was published in March 2020 by the Waywiser Press.
Conquest had been a member of the British Interplanetary Society since the 1940s, and shared Amis's taste for science fiction. Starting from 1961, the two writers jointly edited Spectrum, five anthologies of new sci-fi writing. Conquest also proposed to Amis a collaboration based on a draft comic novel that Conquest had completed. This was revised by Amis, then it appeared under both their names as The Egyptologists (1965). The novel is about a secret Egyptological London society that is really a husbands' organisation serving as an alibi for philanderers. A reviewer in The New York Times felt that their "elaborate little jokes leave an unpleasant taste."
Later, a film version of the novel was cancelled when its star, Peter Sellers, was called away to Hollywood. Conquest published a science-fiction novel, A World of Difference (1955).
Three Laws of Politics
Robert Conquest’s Three Laws of Politics:
1. Everyone is conservative about what he knows best.
2. Any organization not explicitly right-wing sooner or later becomes left-wing.
3. The simplest way to explain the behavior of any bureaucratic organization is to assume that it is controlled by a cabal of its enemies.
Of the Second Law, Conquest gave the Church of England and Amnesty International as examples. Of the Third, he noted that a bureaucracy sometimes actually is controlled by a secret cabal of its enemies — e.g. the postwar British secret service.
What to Do When the Russians Come (1984)
In 1984, Conquest wrote with Jon Manchip White the fictional book What to Do When the Russians Come: a Survivor's Guide which, however, was intended to be a real survival manual in case of Soviet invasion. This book, as many other works of the mid-1980s in different media, like John Hackett's The Third World War, the movie Red Dawn, and the Milton Bradley game Fortress America, starts from the premise that a Soviet ground-invasion of the United States could be imminent and that the Soviet Union was about to engulf the world. Conquest wrote:
It is widely accepted that the United States now faces a real possibility of succumbing to the power of an alien regime unless the right policies are pursued. [This book's aim] is, first, to show the American citizen clearly and factually what the results of this possible Soviet domination could be and how it would affect him or her personally; and second, to give some serious advice on how to survive."
Conquest supported the Reagan defence buildup and asked for an increase of expenses on US defence budget, claiming that in the nuclear field NATO was only possibly matching USSR military power:
We live in dangerous times. Such miscalculations are very possible. But they are not inevitable. The American people and their representatives have it in their power to prevent their country from undergoing the ordeal we have described. A democratic government, with all its distractions and disadvantages ... It is not infallible, it is slow to learn, and it is willing to grasp at comfortable illusions; but it may yet act decisively"
"But why should we fear that such an ordeal may face us? The economic potential of the West in gross national product is far greater than that of the Soviet Union....In fact, the Soviet Union is economically far behind the United States. American technology is always a generation ahead of theirs. They have to turn to the United States for wheat. The Soviet economy is at a dead end. The Communist system has failed to win support in any of the countries of Eastern Europe. The Soviet idea has no attractions. On any calculation—of economic power or social advance or intellectual progress there could be no question of the Russians imposing their will. But in terms of actual military power, the West's advantage does not seem to have been made use of. It is at least matched, and many would say overmatched, in the nuclear field; the Western forces in Europe have less than half the striking power of their opponents. It is no good our being more advanced than they are if this is not translated into power—both military power and political willpower."
In 1986, Conquest said that "a science-fiction attitude is a great help in understanding the Soviet Union. It isn't so much whether they're good or bad, exactly; they're not bad or good as we'd be bad or good. It's far better to look at them as Martians than as people like us."
Reflections on a Ravaged Century (1999)
Reflections on a Ravaged Century is a book devoted to the psychological roots of fanaticism, in which Conquest argues that Communism and Nazism were equal and more twins than opposites.
There is much more in this book about communism than Nazism, partly because of Conquest's greater expertise on communism, and partly because comparatively few Western intellectuals became Nazis. He focuses mainly on attacks on intellectuals in the West who became communists because they felt or believed that this was "anti-fascism" or "anti-Nazism".
Conquest was married four times, first in 1942 to Joan Watkins, with whom he had two sons. They divorced in 1948. There followed a marriage to Tatiana Mihailova (1948–1962), whom he had helped escape from Bulgaria. She was diagnosed with schizophrenia in 1951. In 1962 he married Caroleen MacFarlane; they divorced in 1978. That year he began dating Elizabeth Neece Wingate, a lecturer in English and the daughter of a United States Air Force colonel. He and Wingate married in 1979. When he died in 2015, he had several grandchildren from his sons and stepdaughter.
In 1981, Conquest moved to California to take up a post as Senior Research Fellow and Scholar-Curator of the Russian and Commonwealth of Independent States Collection at Stanford University's Hoover Institution, where he remained a Fellow. In 1985, he signed a petition in support of the anti-Communist Contras (Nicaragua). He was a fellow of the Columbia University's Russian Institute, and of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars; a distinguished visiting scholar at The Heritage Foundation; a research associate of Harvard University's Ukrainian Research Institute. In 1990, he presented Red Empire, a seven-part mini-series on the Soviet Union produced by Yorkshire Television.
Conquest died in 2015 in Stanford, California, at the age of 98, of respiratory failure as a result of Parkinson's disease.
Awards and honours
Conquest was a Fellow of the British Academy, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the Royal Society of Literature, and the British Interplanetary Society, and a Member of the Society for the Promotion of Roman Studies.
His honours include
His awards include:
Historical and political
- Common Sense About Russia (1960)
- Power and Policy in the USSR (1961)
- The Soviet Deportation of Nationalities (1960)
- Courage of Genius: The Pasternak Affair (1961)
- Russia After Khruschev (1965)
- The Politics of Ideas in the USSR (1967)
- Industrial Workers in the USSR (1967)
- Religion in the USSR (1968)
- The Soviet political system (1968)
- Justice and the legal system in the USSR (1968)
- The Great Terror: Stalin's Purge of the Thirties (1968)
- The Great Terror: A Reassessment (1990)
- The Great Terror: 40th Anniversary Edition (2008)
- Where Marx Went Wrong (1970)
- The Nation Killers (1970)
- The Human Cost of Soviet Communism (Prepared for the Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, of the Committee on the Judiciary, United States Senate, 1970)
- Lenin (1972)
- The Russian tradition (with Tibor Szamuely, 1974)
- Kolyma: The Arctic Death Camps (1978)
- Present Danger: Towards a Foreign Policy (1979)
- We and They: Civic and Despotic Cultures (1980)
- The Man-made Famine in Ukraine (with James Mace, Michael Novak and Dana Dalrymple, 1984)
- What to Do When the Russians Come: A Survivor's Guide (with Jon Manchip White, 1984)
- Inside Stalin's Secret Police: NKVD Politics, 1936–1939 (1985)
- The Harvest of Sorrow: Soviet Collectivization and the Terror-Famine (1986)
- The Last empire: nationality and the Soviet future (1986)
- Tyrants and Typewriters: Communiques in the Struggle for Truth (1989)
- Stalin and the Kirov Murder (1989)
- Stalin: Breaker of Nations (1991)
- History, Humanity, and Truth (1993)
- Reflections on a Ravaged Century (1999)
- The Dragons of Expectation: Reality and Delusion in the Course of History, W. W. Norton & Company (2004), ISBN 0-393-05933-2
- "The Limits of Detente". Foreign Affairs, 46(4), pp. 733–742.
- "Stalin's Successors" (1970). Foreign Affairs, 48(3), pp. 509–524.
- "A New Russia? A New World? (1975). Foreign Affairs, 53(3), pp. 482–497.
- "Revisionizing Stalin's Russia" (1987). The Russian Review, 46(4), pp. 386–390.
- "Academe and the Soviet Myth" (1993). The National Interest, 31, pp. 91–98.
- "Toward an English-Speaking Union" (1999). The National Interest (57), pp. 64–70.
- "Downloading Democracy" (2004). The National Interest, (78), pp. 29–32.
- Poems (1956)
- Back to Life: Poems from behind the Iron Curtain as translator/editor (1958)
- Between Mars and Venus (1962)
- Arias from a Love Opera, and Other Poems (1969)
- Forays (1979)
- New and Collected Poems (1988)
- Demons Don't (1999)
- Penultimata (2009)
- A Garden of Erses [limericks, as Jeff Chaucer] (2010)
- Blokelore and Blokesongs (2012)
- Collected Poems (2020)
- A World of Difference (1955)
- The Egyptologists (with Kingsley Amis, 1965)
- The Abomination of Moab (1979)
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Grimes, William (4 August 2015). "Robert Conquest, Historian Who Documented Soviet Horrors, Dies at 98". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 May 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- ^ Encyclopedia of British Writers, 19th and 20th Centuries by Christine L. Krueger page 87
- ^ Science Fiction and Fantasy Literature, Volume 2 By R. Reginald, Douglas Menville, Mary A. Burgess
- ^ Supplement to the Alumni Register (October 1920), "Pennsylvania; A Record of the University's Men in the Great War", University of Pennsylvania General Alumni Society, 1920, page 40.
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- ^ "Robert Conquest". Hoover Institution. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
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- ^ "No. 34837". The London Gazette (Supplement). 23 April 1940. p. 2459.
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- ^ a b c d Leigh, David (27 January 1978). "Death of the department that never was". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- ^ Timothy Garton Ash. "Orwell's List" (review), New York Review of Books, 23 September 2003.
- ^ a b Samuelson, Lennart. "A pathbreaker. Robert Conquest and Soviet studies during the Cold War". Baltic Worlds. Retrieved 22 September 2015.
- ^ a b c d e f Homberger, Eric (5 August 2015). "Robert Conquest obituary". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 September 2015.
- ^ Lyons, Richard D. (5 June 1994). "Frederick A. Praeger Dies at 78; Published Books on Communism". The New York Times. Retrieved 27 July 2018.
- ^ Conquest, Robert (1968). The Great Terror (1st ed.).
- ^ a b c d Cronin, Brenda; Cullison, Alan (4 August 2015). "Robert Conquest, Seminal Historian of Soviet Misrule, Dies at 98". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- ^ Robert Conquest, Preface, The Great Terror: A Reassessment: 40th Anniversary Edition, Oxford University Press, USA, 2007. p. xviii
- ^ Robert Conquest, The Great Terror: A Reassessment, Oxford University Press (1990) ISBN 0-19-507132-8, pp. 466–75.
- ^ Conquest, Robert.
"Letter to the Editors", The New York Review of Books, 12 April 2007.
- ^ J. Arch Getty; Gábor T. Rittersporn; Viktor N. Zemskov (October 1993). "Victims of the Soviet Penal System in the Pre-War Years: A First Approach on the Basis of Archival Evidence" (PDF). American Historical Review. 98 (4): 1043. doi:10.2307/2166597. JSTOR 2166597.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- ^ Defty, Andrew (2 December 2013). Britain, America and Anti-Communist Propaganda 1945-53: The Information Research Department. Routledge. p. 3. ISBN 978-1317791690.
- ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen G. (1999). "Victims of Stalinism and the Soviet Secret Police: The Comparability and Reliability of the Archival Data. Not the Last Word" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 51 (2): 340–342. doi:10.1080/09668139999056.
- ^ Wheatcroft, S. G. (2000). "The Scale and Nature of Stalinist Repression and its Demographic Significance: On Comments by Keep and Conquest" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 52 (6): 1143–1159. doi:10.1080/09668130050143860. PMID 19326595. S2CID 205667754.
- ^ "Czeslaw Milosz: 'The Poet Who Was Right'", National Review, 17 August 1992.
- ^ Ignatieff, Michael (23 March 2000). "The Man Who Was Right". New York Review of Books. 47 (5). Retrieved 7 October 2015.
- ^ Moyihan, Michael C. (20 August 2011). "How a True Believer Keeps the Faith". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- ^ Hobsbawm, Eric (2011). On History. Hachette UK. p. Chapter 19. ISBN 978-1780220512.
- ^ a b "Robert Conquest an appreciation". nationalreview.com. 5 August 2015. Retrieved 18 September 2015.
- ^ a b c Hitchens, Christopher (26 November 1999). "Against sinister perfectionism". The Times Literary Supplement. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen (June 2006). "Stalin and the Soviet Famine of 1932-33: A Reply to Ellman" (PDF). Europe-Asia Studies. 58 (4): 625–633 – via JSTOR.
- ^ Wheatcroft, Stephen G.; Davies, R. W. (2016). The Years of Hunger: Soviet Agriculture, 1931–1933. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 441. ISBN 9780230273979.
- ^ Suny, Ronald Grigor (2017). Red Flag Unfurled: History, Historians and the Russian Revolution. London: Verso Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-1-78478-567-3.
- ^ Priestland, David (May 2011). "The Kirov Murder and Soviet History". History Today. 61 (5). Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- ^ The Whisperers, Orlando Figes, Allen Lane 2007, p. 236n
- ^ Getty, J. Arch, Origins of the Great Purges: The Soviet Communist Party Reconsidered, 1933–38 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987), p. 207.
- ^ David Yezzi, Yale Review, Volume 98, Issue 2 (April 2010), p. 183 ff.
- ^ "Robert Conquest, Penultimata: Note on Robert Conquest". waywiser-press.com. Archived from the original on 15 January 2014.
- ^ Haven, Cynthia (16 August 2010). "Stanford legend Robert Conquest: new books at 93 for the historian and poet". Stanford Report. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- ^ "Robert Conquest". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 4 August 2015.
- ^ Zachary Leader, ed., The Movement Reconsidered, Oxford University Press, 2009.
- ^ BBC Radio 4 Publicity (29 April 2008). "Mr Larkin's Awkward Day". BBC Radio 4.
- ^ Robert Conquest, 'Solzhenitsyn, A Genius with a Blindspot', Sunday Times, 10 August 2008; p. A15
- ^ Collected Poems, Robert Conquest
- ^ a b Hillier, Bevis (19 November 1986). "Harvest' of Soviet Terrorism Reaped by Historian Conquest". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 4 October 2015.
- ^ O'Sullivan, John (14 August 2015). "What to Make of the Guardian's Shameful Robert Conquest Obituary?". National Review. nationalreview.com. Retrieved 27 September 2015.
- ^ "Robert Conquest's Three Laws of Politics « Isegoria".
- ^ Conquest, Robert; Manchip White, Jon (1984). What to Do When the Russians Come: a Survivor's Guide. Stein and Day. p. 7. ISBN 0812829859. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Conquest, Robert; Manchip White, Jon (1984). What to Do When the Russians Come: a Survivor's Guide. Stein and Day. p. 175. ISBN 0812829859. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Conquest, Robert; Manchip White, Jon (1984). What to Do When the Russians Come: a Survivor's Guide. Stein and Day. pp. 176–177. ISBN 0812829859. Retrieved 24 September 2015.
- ^ Reflections on a Ravaged Century
- ^ "Quand Bernard-Henri Lévy pétitionnait contre le régime légal du Nicaragua". 1 October 2009.
- ^ McCannon, John (Fall 1998). "Red Empire". The Journal for Multi Media History. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
- ^ "Presidential Medal of Freedom Recipients". Georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- ^ "No. 54255". The London Gazette (Supplement). 29 December 1995. p. 3.
- ^ "No. 40366". The London Gazette (Supplement). 31 December 1954. p. 13.
- ^ "Ukraine honors Robert Conquest with Presidential Medal of Honor". Ukrweekly.com. 24 September 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- ^ "Stanford Report, 21 June 2006". News.stanford.edu. 21 June 2006. Retrieved 14 January 2014.
- ^ "The Dan David Prize: Laureates 2012:Robert Conquest". dandavidprize.org. Archived from the original on 25 April 2012. Retrieved 6 August 2015.
- ^ National Advisory Council. Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 20 May 2011. Retrieved 20 May 2011.